Table of Contents

BASIC TECHNOLOGY 11

General Remarks 11

Classification of Knitting Machines 13

The Three Main Types of Needle 14

The Latch Needle 15

Needle Specifications 18

The Stitch Formation Cycles with the Three Types of Needles 19

Stitch Formation with a Latch Needle (picture 13) 19

Stitch Formation with a Spring Beard Needle (picture 14) 20

Stitch Formation with a Compound Needle (picture 15) 20

The Needle-bed 21

FLAT KNITTING MACHINES 23

The Manual Flat Knitting Machine 24

The Needle-bed 25

The Carriage 26

The Cam-locks 27

High-butt Needles and Low-butt Needles 29

Knit Stitch Formation 30

Tuck Stitch Formation 31

Miss Stitch Formation 32

Fabric Take-down 34

Needle-bed Racking 35

Stitch Transfer 36

Automatic Flat Knitting Machines 37

Fabric Take-down Motion 38

Program Reading System 39

The Thread Guide 41

Lateral Control System 41

The Needle-beds 42

Carriage and Cam Plates 42

The Exchange Technique 44

Selection with Sliders or Sinkers 45

The Stitch Transfer Process 47

The Integrated Cam-lock 49

Electronic Flat-bed Machines 50

The Technical Evolution of Flat-bed Machines 51

Links-links Machines 58

CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES 60

Introduction 60

Classification Criteria 60

Classification by Diameter 60

Classification by Number of Needle-beds 60

Basic Structure of a Large-diameter Circular Knitting Machine 61

The Yarn Feeding System 63

The Spool Holder 63

Yarn Feeders 64

The Thread Guide 66

Stitch Formation Motions 68

The Main Components of a Single-bed Machine 68

The Main Components of a Double-bed Machine 69

The Technical Evolution 71

Selection Systems 72

Selection by means of Needles with Multilevel Butts 72

Jacquard Selection 73

Mechanical Jacquard Selection System 73

Electronic Jacquard Selection System 75

Take-down and Winding Motions 76

Take-down Motion 76

Winding Motion 77

Drives, Control and Monitoring Systems 79

Drives 79

Control and Monitoring System 79

Ancillary Systems 80

Lubrication System 80

Suction and Blowing Systems 81

Safety Systems 81

Large-diameter Circular Knitting Machines 82

Single-bed Circular Knitting Machines 82

Stitch Formation Cycle on Single-bed Knitting Machines 82

Jersey Knitting Machines 84

Terry Knitting Machines 84

Fleece Knitting Machines 86

Double-bed Circular Knitting Machines 87

Dial-cylinder Knitting Machines 87

Stitch Formation on Dial-cylinder Knitting Machines 88

Rib-stitch Machines 89

Interlock Machines 89

Variable Needle-bed Machines 90

Double-cylinder Machines 92

Stitch Formation and Needle Transfer 93

Medium-diameter Knitting Machines 95

Medium-diameter Cloth-manufacturing Machines 95

Bodysize / Seamlesswear Machines 95

Small-diameter Circular Knitting Machines 96

Single-cylinder Machines 98

Single-cylinder Machines with Needles in the Dial (Rib Stitch) 99

Double-cylinder Machines 100

FULL-FASHIONED KNITTING MACHINES 101

LOOP-WHEEL CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINES 102

WARPING 103

WARP KNITTING MACHINES 104

The Guide Bar 105

The Guide Bar Chain 106

Classification of Warp Knitting Machines 107

Stitch Formation on Flat Warp Knitting Machines 108

Flat Single-bed Warp Knitting Machines with Spring Beard Needles 108

Single-bed Raschel Machines with Latch Needles 110

Flat Single-bed Warp Knitting Machines and Single-bed Raschel Machines with Compound Needles 111

Flat Double-bed Warp Knitting Machines and Double-bed Raschel machines 113

CROCHET MACHINES 114

Stitch Formation with Latch Needles 116

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