In Hand and Machine Knitting

Data on productivity norms are given in part in rules for guild journeymen or manufacture workers, in part, however, they can be calculated from annual, monthly or weekly reports on the actual production volume of a given workshop. The accuracy of these norms are fairly reliable, since wages were calculated on their basic, the latter more realistically take into account all sorts of standstills in production. Detailed norms pertaining to the production of various knitted garments in the...

And in the Baltic Countries

I have already written a comprehensive article on knitting in these countries based on scanty subject literature and my own archival and museum inves- ligations.86 Owing to the widespread use of the national dress among men and women in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, knitted garments were not in great demand. They were, however, a part of the uniform of some military forces they were also worn with female dress based on west European fashion, as well as in the liturgical garments of...

Knitting outside Europe

The hand knitting in some Asiatic and north African countries will be mentioned in Chapter X concerning the peasant's knitting. The little information known deals only with the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The hand knitting was known in the United States of America. Stockings and other parts of knitted garments were very useful in the rude living conditions of the first settlers of North America, but only rural Pennsylvania clothing has been studied more systematically, by E. J. Gehret....

Of William Lees Device

The knitting frame, invented in 1589 by William Lee from Calverton, was the most perfect tool-type machine of the period and its complexity aroused the admiration of contemporaries. In the petition of English knitters, dated 1658, we can see their pride in the excellence of the machine they were using. They declared that the frame was composed of above 2000 pieces of smith, joiners' and turners' work, after so artificial and exact manner that, by the judgement of all beholders, it far excels in...

Finishing of the Knitwear

The finishing of hand- and machine-made knitwear is discussed here jointly, taking into account the slight differences which appeared in relation to the character of the product, its shape, mode of use, quality, and above all, the raw material from which it was made. Among the finishing treatments the following should be mentioned washing, the fulling of the woollen products and then, their combing, shearing, the washing as well as cleansing of products made of silk, wool and also of linen...

Machine knitting on the lands of the former Polish Republic and in Silesia and west Pomerania

The possibility of the development of machine knitting on Polish soil varied according to these areas differing national affiliations. Thus, west Pomerania enjoyed Prussian state support for the establishment of manufactures, while Silesia already had exceptionally powerful guild knitting. On the lands of the former Polish Republic knitting manufactures were being established in complexes of lordly enterprises, and at the end of the eighteenth century similar burghers' establishments also...

Italian Spanish and Swiss Knitting

The diffusion of the knitting machine took a different form in France and England than in other European countries. In England, owing to the weak guild system, hand-knitters did not put up organized opposition against the 'introduction of the machine, and later, from the second half of the sevente-'enth century, the powerful organization of Framework Knitters defended the interests of this group of producers, machine knitting in France initially enjoyed strong state support nevertheless this...

Knitting in France

The sixteenth century France is ranked amongst the major European knitting centres, both in production based on wool as on silk. In 1514 Parisian knitters belonged to the Six Corps - the most important guilds of this city.13 In 1505 the knitters' guild of Troyes in Champagne obtained confirmation of statute. At that time the guild consisted of eight masters and produced woollen caps and stockings. Apprenticeship was of three years. The variety of articles produced was revealed in 1698 on the...

Knitting in Central Europe

The history of hand knitting in Germanic countries should start from Austria, as it is situated close to Italy, from where knowledge of the production of patterned knitted carpets or of larger garments was to come. It was in this mountainous country with its extensive sheep rearing that knitting based on wool blossomed. In the vicinity of Salzburg and in the Tyrol, as well as in Styria, there was, by the end of the fifteenth and in the sixteenth century, a rather wide diffusion of woollen...

Knitting in Eastern and Northern Europe

The earliest knitting production centres in eastern and northern Europe are characterized by the absence of guild organization, this means that no data is available from written sources, thus we find the difficulty in establishing dates and volume of production. This concerns in particular the Russian knitting. The first mention of a knitting worker dates from 1576-1580 and comes from a Russian Orthodox convent. The reference to knitted woollen stocking appears in the accounts of an Orthodox...

The Cappers Guild

First Technical Upheaval in European Knitting in the Thirteenth Century and the Appearance of Guilds The technical upheaval in hand knitting consisted in the introduction of four or five needles, instead of two. The oldest liturgical gloves show the knowledge of this technique, which facilitated the shaping of more complicated products. However, the first indisputable iconographic representations come from as late as the fourteenth century. The Madonna from the atelier of Ambrogio Lorenzo,...

Bohemian Austrian and Hungarian Knitting

Following the chronological order of the introduction of the knitting machine, we shall discuss collectively the group of countries in central Europe which during this period were a single state organism under Hapsburg rule. In the first place we must mention Bohemia which most rapidly became an important centre of machine knitting. Already at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth century the cheapest and most primitive knitting machine had gained popularity being organised...

The Technical Development of the Knitting Machine in the Eighteenth Century

The variations in fashion within the growing demand for knitted clothing had a decisive effect on the evolution of the prototype of the simple knitting machine built by Lee. This machine could only execute the stocking stitch the fashioning of products was limited, and any more complicated forms of clothing had to be stitched together by hand. These difficulties were taken into account by various redesigners. Some of them aimed at small improvements in the construction of the machine itself and...

Knitwear in the Early Middle Ages

The first products defined as knitted were small in size and usually of one colour. Later products, probably of Arab origin, have survived in larger fragments and were generally produced from multicoloured yarn. The earliest of them are knitted socks, Coptic or Arab, kept in the Mus es Royaux d'Art et d'Histori in Brussels, in the section with Coptic and Arabian fabrics. It is impossible to date them accurately. The length of the foot-part is 14 cm. They are made of good quality wool, in...

Hand Knitting Technique

We are only interested in the production technique of articles on two to five needles. The knotless netting technique had already been dealt with in Chapter II. Neither shall we concern ourselves with crocheting with its vertical or horizontal arrangement of stitches usually used for articles having a looser and more decorative structure. The knitting technique always adopted a vertical arrangement of stitches. I. Emery describes it as a kind of vertical interlooping.4 Many dictionaries and...

Knitting or Knotless Netting

Dating the first knitted fabrics presents basic difficulties. Let us discard the undocumented conjectures about the knitted and not sewn robe of Christ mentioned in the Bible, or the reference to Penelope as a knitting woman. The oldest relics of the history of knitting are the socks and other small items of Coptic origin from the first centuries A. D. Nevertheless, D. K. Burnham has established on the basis of technological analysis that the collection of Coptic relics kept in the Royal...

Assortment of hand and machine knitted products

This chapter will dicuss types of all knitted garment products with the exception of carpets, as well as some small items used to furnishing interiors, suchn as cushion- coverings.1 Among the garments we can list are headgear, coverings for hands and legs, doublets, waistcoats, trousers, skirts, drawers and shirts, meant also for children's wear. Children's clothes and frocks dating from the Middle Ages were often produced using hand knitting. Belts, shawls and small clothing accessories such...

Knitting in Different German Countries

The development of machine knitting in diffferent German countries was not closely linked with former centres of the textile industry. Of direct influence was the colonization of the Huguenot craftsmen who were usually establishing knitting manufactures.37 Some German countries such as Catholic Bavaria did not admit Protestant experts until the end of the eighteenth century, while Prussia most strongly supported this migration. This is why dates of the establishment of manufacture's encompass a...

Knitting Production in the Netherlands

The neighbourhood of Tournai, thus the region bordering with France, is the most important Belgian knitting centre of southern Netherlands. Already at the end of the fifteenth century this part of the country is famous for hand knitting. The knitting machine was introduced there relatively early, already at the time when this region belonged to France, in the years 1667-1708. Tournai together with Valenciennes figures on the list of towns to which English knitting machines were exported during...

Knitting in Switzerland and in the Netherlands

Swiss knitting developed in the seventeenth century. The information that the first stockings knitted with five needles were produced about 1560 is untrue because this technique had been known 200 years earlier.34 Hand knitting developed first on the borderland with Alsace, about 30 workshops functioning in Basle and vicinity. Rules for journeymen from Freiburg date from 1591. Producers of knitted leggings were organizationally connected with clothiers, while a journeyman's pay was fixed at one...

Machine Knitting in Scandinavia

In Scandinavian countries hand knitting along with the knotless netting technique satisfied the clothing requirements of the inhabitants. The knitting machine probably appeared early in Sweden, because Jonas Alstr mer brought a few models of it in 1723 and opened a manufacture in a complex of textile establishments near G teborg. One of these machines of the most simple construction datable 1723 has been preserved in the Tekniske Museet in Stockholm. The second knitting manufacture was the...

Diffusion of the Knitting Frame in the British Isles

Fragmentary data on the life-history of William Lee tell us that he devoted the period from 1589 to the beginning of the seventeenth century to perfecting his invention and to the construction of a new model which enabled the production of silk stockings. At that time he was loosely connected with the London knitters' guild, while the contract from 1600 evidences an attempt at starting production on a large scale. This attempt failed and Lee left for France. The last information about him comes...

Knitting in the British Isles

The British Isles, and particularly southern England, distinguished themselves, in the fifteenth century, by the extensive production of hand knitting. The question of guild organization, which were always rather weak in that country, is not of great importance in view of the many and varied relics coming from archaelogical excavations. They give eviden evidence of the existence of large knitting extablishments in the oldest part of London and in South-East England.5 Archival data on these...

Knitting in Italy and Spain

The increasing demand for knitted products, observable already in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and the parallel improvements in production techniques gave stimulus to the development of hand knitting in the early sixteenth century. The best known is the guild organization of production as it is much better documented than the rural, home or convent production. The dates of statutes indicate usually the registration of several guild workshops. Hand knitting adapted easily to the...

Knitting in Rumania and in the countries of the Balkan Peninsula

No data are available about the use of the knitting machine in these countries up to the end of the eighteenth century, except for Dalmatia which has already been covered in the discussion on Italian knitting. The national dress worn both in Moldavia, as in Wallachia, in Transylvania, Bulgaria and different countries of Yugoslavia did not require the use of hosiery. They were not manufactured in the Turkish state. In Bulgaria the first textile manufactures came into being only in the thirties...

History Of Knitting Industry

The aim of the present book is to fill the gap in the history of the textile industry. The history of English knitting has already been elaborated in other countries, however, interest has been limited to the production of certain regions only or discussion has centred on particular collections of relics. There has been no research done into the knitting of southern, central and eastern Europe. Therefore, we shall discuss the problem of knitting production, beginning with Coptic and Arabian...

Century

In France, except for the unsuccessful attempt at establishing a knitting manufacture in Rouen in 1610-1611, for half a century only hand knitting was practised. The increased demand for knitted garments, however, resulted in such a enormous imports from England that Colbert s government was faced with the need to place some restrictions according to the principles of mercantile economic policy. Following the tradition of that period, the model of the machine was obtained from England by means...