Knitting in Different German Countries

The development of machine knitting in diffferent German countries was not closely linked with former centres of the textile industry. Of direct influence was the colonization of the Huguenot craftsmen who were usually establishing knitting manufactures.37 Some German countries such as Catholic Bavaria did not admit Protestant experts until the end of the eighteenth century, while Prussia most strongly supported this ¡migration. This is why dates of the establishment of manufacture's encompass a period of more than a hundred years, while Bohemian and Austrian knitting developed more simultaneously. In Bavaria the first manufacture of cotton stockings in Reichenhall was established in 1760 and existed until 1807. Only the washing and dyeing process involved in the knitted products, mainly stockings and night-caps, was centralized. Except for the finishing, the production of the manufacture was based on the work of the inhabitants of the Reichenhall and Traunstein surroundings. In 1799 it employed: 51 carders, 270 spinners, 730 knitters and 32 seamstresses. Its production did not satisfy domestic needs; stockings occupied an important place among Bavarian imports. It emerges from statistical data that around 1781 in the neighbourhood of Burghausen there were 43 knitters, in the Straubing region - 46, in the Munich region - 70, that is 159 in all, apart from the Inn region, lost to Austria in 1779, with 32 knitters. From the summarized comparison of the number of craftsmen in Upper and Lower Bavaria it appears that there were 107 independent knitting workshops there. E. Schremmer gives general calculations for the number of different branches of craftsmen in relation to the number of inhabitants. These calculations reveal that in the late eighteenth onetury, there were about 11,900 people engaged in knitting along with spinning and raw material treatment.38 Thus it was small- scale production geared to local needs.

The largest group of knitters from the south France settled relatively early, in 1686, in the duchy of Bayreuth, in central Franconia, mainly in Erlangen. The knitters stood at the forefront of the large group of Huguenot settlers. From the very beginning production assumed rather large dimensions: Louis Rey from Nimes, for example was working on 300 machines. From 1698 it was organized according the principles of the margrave Christian Ernst. They indicate that the state favoured manufactures and at the same time sought a guild type of organization facilitating the training of skilled workers but without restricting the volume of production. The privileges of the French settlers caused discontent, among the already-qualified German experts, which in 1705 resulted in further changes in the regulations and in restrictions on production. Thus it was only permitted to admit apprentices aged between 13 and 15, each of them had to be trained for three years and only in the fourth year, that is the last year of apprenticeship, could the next apprentice be taken. Despite numerous protests from producers, no more than there knitting frames were permitted to work in one workshop. This order does not seem to have been very strictly observed if we take into consideration the dimensions of knitting production in Erlangen. Already in 1698 there were 97 knitting machines working there, while in 1712 - 161. In Erlangen, Schwabach and Wilhelmsdorf thgere were 156,000 pairs of stockings being produced in 1712. In 1775 work was being done on 580 machines, while in 1792 - 350 masters with 180 journeymen and 89 apprentices were producing 420,000 pairs of stockings per year.39

The numerical development of the immigrant and local knitters' colony was as follows: in 1698 in Erlangen 30 independent enterpreneurs, 73 journeymen and 104 family members, relatives of masters and servants were working on 69 machines. 207 knitters were repairing the machines, producing replaceable parts and assembling new ones, as well as finishing the products. In these figures, the spinners of wool, cotton or silk, the combers, carders and other helpers are missing. The large number of family members and servants indicates that the guild regulations limiting the number of persons per workshop were avoided, since it amounts to 7 workers. The number of machines, however, point to a decline of Louis Rey large manufacture. Initially French settlers predominate among knitters. In 1712 50 masters and 40 journeymen and apprentices were mentioned. In 1723, however, there were 272 German knitters in Erlangen and supposedly a couple or more fullers and dyers. In these figures spinners and carders are not distinguished separately, so the number of qualified journeymen of masters would be at least 50 per cent lower. In the course of 39 years many Germans mastered this new branch of textiles.40

Detailed data from 1792 give a more precise idea about the dimensions of knitting in Erlangen. Within a century, cotton became the main raw material. 350 masters together with widows, 180 journeymen and 89 apprentices worked in this town on 565 knitting machines, which meant 619 qualified knitters. Much more numerous was the auxiliary staff consisting of 161 carders, 1500 spinners, 200 seamstresses stitching up the flat-knitted stockings, 268 seamstresses embroidering the gussets and 49 workers engaged in the finishing and packing of the products. In sum, on 565 machines there were 2797 people engaged in the production of stockings and night-caps, which comes to almost workers per machine. It also works out at 3 1/4 pounds, that is more than one and a half kilo of cotton per machine per week. By now it was not 10, as at the beginning of the eighteenth century, but 15 stockings which were being produced weekly per machine. With 50 working weeks per year, production could amount to 35,312 dozen stockings. A carder or comber of cotton was processing material for 4 machines, a seamstress was stitching 4 dozen stockings per week, while an embroiderer of gussets was in that time finishing off 3 pairs. Some of the knitters were producing woollen stockings, gloves and gaiters, as well as night-caps. For dyeing, local madder was used mainly. Thus, taking into account the dimensions of the German knitting industry, Erlangen was an important production centre, comparable to all but the very largest centres of England and France. During the period under Prussian rule and prior to its annexation to Bavaria, Erlangen did not increase its production. In 1805 there were only 1795 people working on 406 machines and in 1810 there were scarcely 1069 workers.41

Apart from Erlangen, at the end of the seventeent century as in the eighteenth century the knitting industry was centered in Wilhelmsdorf, Fürth and Langenzenn. Less studied are the amount of production in other localities of the duchy of Ansbach although French knitters were settled there from 1685. In 1701 in Schwabach there were 7 masters, 22 journeymen, 2 fullers with 7 helpers and 1 producer of needles and other machine parts with 3 helpers. In 1734 German masters were predominant, working on more that a hundred machines, while 8 years earlier there had only been 110 French and German masters.42 There are no statistical data concerning the further development of knitting production in this town.

In other duchies of southern Germany there was no such powerful knitting production subordinated to guild regulations. There are no statistics available on machine knitting in Württemberg or Frankfurt on the Main. However, in Erfurt and Würzburg, there were workhouses in which hand knitting was done, although it is not known whether machines were known there. Hand knitting organized in the putting-out system was practised in the mountainous regions of Westphalia, the Thuringian Forest, the Franconian Forest, Rudavy and it was there that the most primitive of the knitting machines first began to appear. The conditions required from producers under the domestic putting-out system were legally established: "It was no longer permitted for any hosier to work for a foreign or local trader, all the more so for a Jew or anyone else, but only for masters of a hosiery handicraft, from them to take the wool, cotton or any other material and in return give stockings or caps, else promise payment".43 In Westphalia and Badenia during the eighteenth century small knitting manufactures were being established, but no data is available on the volume of their production. In 1725 there existed a manufacture producing silk stockings and pants, but its further fate is not known.44 C. Aberle enumerates a series of other localities in Germany where hand knitting and machine production co-existed, such as Hessen-Darmstadt, Swäbisch - Gmünd, Reutlinger, Balinger in Wittenberg with a guild consisting of as many as 80 masters. His work,however, contains so much wrong informations, that it is difficult to accept the numerical data. From Stuttgart comes a guild seal from 1750 depicting a knitting machine, which proves the existence of this type of production there 45 During the eighteenth century machine knitting was spreading so rapidly to different countries of central and eastern Europe that it was probably being introduced into the less industrialised German Duchies so as to restrict their needs for costly imports. The most recent investigations have revealed a small knitting centre in the Wupper valley in Elberfeld. In 1702, among numerous textile workers, 29 knitters and 8 women producing crocheted lace were working. Already by 1767 in this region, 600 knitters and spinners of floss were employed. In the large textile manufactures co- operative of J. G. Briigelmann in Elberfeld a fairly large number of knitting frames was installed in 1789.46 The large knitting production in Hamburg and Lübeck has not been fully investigated. This latter was at the beginning of the sixteenth century an important centre of hand knitting. From the end of the seventeenth century in many countries there are mentions of machine-knitted "Hamburg" stockings, and some Austrian and German manufactures attempted to imitate these models.47 However, we do not know, whether this name was not used to describe a certain type of English product imported through Hamburg.

Knitting manufactures in Thuringia, Saxony and Prussia have been relatively better investigated. In Thuringia it was Apolda which was to become the most important centre, hand- made hosiery having existed there from at least 1593. The first knitting machine was imported to the Eschner establishment in 1690. Around 1700 there were 19 machines working there, in 1704 - 52, and in 1714 - already 257. In consequence of this diffusion of machine knitting, a guild was established in 1714, the regulations of which clearly specify that iron and half-iron machines with guild seal must be used. It was strictly forbidden to work on wooden machines. It emerges from these data that wooden machines were being used, just as in Bohemia, for the production of coarse woollen stockings. In 1736 in Apolda there were 481 machines, 59 domestic workers, 230 master knitters, 143 journeymen and 126 apprentices.48

A fat monograph presents the history of the Huguenot knitters in Weimar. Initially they were as willingly accepted as in Prussia, but the religious protests of 1699 delayed the development of this settlement. Manufacture rules from 1713 guarantee religious tolerance. The settlement was organized by Jacques Coste and after initial agreements in October 1716, about 20 masters from different textile branches together with journeymen settled in Weimar. Among them there were three master knitters, a locksmith and a producer of needles for the machines, 2 carders and 2 bleachery workers. In addition to knitwear, the settlers were to produce etamin, woollen and sild cloth, hats and gloves. Such a group of specialists is typical of the textile manufactures established in different countries of central and eastern Europe. Lighter fashionable fabrics and accessories for garments were being produced. Detailed biographies of five of the knitting masters from Weimar reveal that they originated from the Cevennes in Languedoc. They were producing silk stockings and caps, and at the same time they were making new machines, assembling them from metal parts. They were to produce woollen fabrics from better merino wool, usually imported. Already within 15 months of the existence of the colony of Huguenot knitters, Germans as well as Frenchmen and Walloons found work in the combing and carding of the wool in the production of stockings on machines and in the finishing of the knitwear. The decline of the colony has been attributed to the lack of funds for the purchase of imported raw materials, and for the construction of production premises, warehouses and a church. However, there were also difficulties in selling the luxurious fabrics on the local market and even on the markets of Leipzig and Frankfurt.49

Data on the Huguenot colony in Weimar indicate that it had a beneficial influence on improving the quality of locally knitted products. In 1724 in Weimar, there were already 171 producers, 11 traders involved in domestic knitwear production and 316 machines, while during the same period in Apolda there were 230 producers, 59 traders involved in domestic knitwear production and 481 knitting machines. Knitting production in these towns was partly based on scattered village production. This production existed in 1686 and at least contributed to the spread of a cheaper and inferior version of the knitting machine made almost entirely of wood. Its construction was based on the Swiss models. The concentration of knitting production in towns and higher requirements as to its quality brought about regulations forbidding the use of wooden ?niachines in villages and led to their confiscation. Special inspectors were to check the knitting machines and destroy the most primitive models. It was also forbidden to export woollen knitwear produced on these machines. Further regulations from 1713 forbade producers both retail and wholesale trade of products, while traders in domestic production were entitled only to wholesale trade, which allowed for the standardization of production. Regulations dating from 1723 ordered quality control of both the machines and the knitted products, confirmed by special markings. Wooden machines, however, did not go out of use because the same interdictions were repeated in 1727 and 1732, ordering their destruction.50

These data testify to an extensive production of the least expensive woollen knitwear, finding its market among the widest masses of the populace, which Were made on locally produced, almost completely wooden, machines, Apparently these products were not suitable for manufacture finishing since their .production was so persistently fought against by the state under pressure from municipal authorities. Later, knitters from Apolda and Weimar probably managed to subordinate those rural domestic producers. In 1736, in the neighbourhood of Weimar, there were working a total of: 952 knitting machines, 59 domestic producers, 496 masters, 297 journeymen and 233 apprentices. In Apolda in 1767 there were 607 machines and in 1771 - 740 machines, thus

Weimar and its surroundings had a greater productive capacity. From the beginning of the eighteenth century knitting production also existed in Zeulen-roda; the guild was established there in 1738. In 1744 there were already about 800 dozen pairs of stockings being produced there per year.51

Knitting manufactures in Saxony have been discussed by R. Forberger. He claims that in Saxon domestic production in the putting-out system, the machine was in use by 1650, and that by 1660 it was known in Glaussnitz and its surroundings. At that time the machine was only just beginning to spread in English knitting and had not yet been imported to France. Consequently this most primitive model could have been brought through Switzerland after 1670. Alternatively it might have been a model of a machine exported to Italy at the beginning of the seventeenth century which may be why the wooden knitting machines used in domestic production were known in Saxony so early. Around 1671 knitting gains importance in Chemnitz, (Karl-Marx-Stadt). It had a powerful guild production alongside rural production organized in the putting-out system. Around 1800, there were 88. 340 dozen pairs of stockings, caps and gloves and 7500 knitwear items being produced there.52 In the eighteenth century only six knitting manufactures were established in Saxony. The oldest of them, in Limbach, had grown before 1745. The Esche family was managing it up to at least 1838. In 1793 this manufacturer was working with 43 machines giving a yearly production of 3600 pairs of silk stockings. Around 1764 a silk stockings business with 7 machines, the property of E. M. Andio, was established in Dresden. In 1765 a similar establishment, managed by E. Heuss, was organized in Leipzig. Before 1785, count Schulenburg established a scattered manufacture of woollen stockings in Burgscheidungen; only 6-15 machines were working on the spot, but in addition many domestic producers were employed. A similar manufacture producing woollen stockings was found in 1786 in Naumburg, the property of E. Thierisch, and was working on 60 machines. In 1781 F. G. Haslauer organized a glove manufacture in Dresden which had, apart from seamstresses, female workers engaged in hand knitting, so most probably there were some knitted gloves among the dozens of them produced in 1786. There is no information on the imposition of guild statutes on knitting manufactures, although in Dresden and Leipzig there also existed hand-knitting guilds. We should emphasize the great importance of Saxon domestic production encompassing both hand and machine knitting. In the neighbourhood of Obbergau, for instance, after 1784 there were 58,305 knitting machines in use. Unclear wording may mean, however, that a considerable part of this production only developed after 1800. Domestic production organised in the putting-out system assumed great dimensions also in Budziszyn and its surroundings such as Hoyerswerda, Kemanz, Lobau. Domestic producers were making stockings, caps, gaiters and gloves from wool and were utilizing 6-7 thousand stones (120-140 pounds) of wool yearly. Part of this production went through Bremen for export to North America.53

On the basis of data showing the dimensions of knitting production in different German duchies it appears that it was concentrated mainly in Franconia, Thuringia and Saxony. Two trends of this production are clearly distinguishable. The Huguenots, with state support, were establishing manufactures of products in silk and the highest quality wool, later also in cotton.

Simultaneously, in smaller localities and in villages situated among the foot-hills of the mountains, domestic production was developing based on thick local wool from which, by hand or an almost entirely wooden machines, knitwear was being produced for the local market. In this respect the situation was similar to that in Bohemia. The manufactures were producing garments intended for a much more limited market.

Prussia was the first Germanic country to issue, already in 1685. an edict in Potsdam facilitating the colonization of emigrants from France by means of state allocation. According to mercantile principles, the greatest support was given to specialists contributing to the development of the Prussian silk industry, since they would be able to bring about a reduction of imports. Production of woollen and later cotton knitwear should also have been propagated among the masses, but this did not arouse the interest of the authorities. The expanded Prussian bureaucracy has left an abundance of documents published in part in the volumes of the series of Acta Borussica. Data on the subsidies and housing facilities provided to the Berlin Huguenots reveal the difficulties in developing production based on imported raw materials, machines and specialists. Teaching local craftsmen was difficult because of lack of interest among the young, the language barrier and the endeavours of the Huguenots to preserve their monopoly over production. Only the consistent policy of the Prussian state and constantly expanding anti- import customs regulations brought about the emergence of a fairly large centre of production. The injunction of 1734 informs us of confiscation because of export of knitting machines, even the oldest of their models.54

Despite so many privileges, the first knitting manufactures only developed in Berlin between 1688 and 1691 The first manufacture of woollen and silk stockings was established by Jean Didelot. while the second one belonged to Jordan and Mialon. Both these establishments had privileges obtained from the General-Commerciencollegium. instituted in 1684. In comparison to many other countries, the absence of legal status with respect to the training of specialists was being felt. Consequently, in 1697 a guild of stockings and cap producers (Strumpfwirkern and Barettmachern) was established in Berlin based on the privileges of similar guilds from Heidelberg and Switzerland. Customs duties were making the import of knitted stockings and caps difficult.

Other privileged manufactures were the establishment of Henry Delon, existing from 1708, and of Duchesne from 1713. These were small establishments, which were usually working with a few machines anc' .vere vulnerable bankrupcy due to difficulties in obtaining both qualified workers and a market for their products. Costs of imported raw materials led to increasing production costs. Already by 1711 in one of these Berlin enterprises, the French had begun co-operating with the Germans. Apart from Berlin. Prussian knitting production Was concentrated in Magdeburg and Halle. In 1732 there were altogether 1251 knitting machines working there, of this total in Magdeburg and its vicinity -940, in Halle - 240. Manufacture was mainly concentrated in large craft Workshops. In 1731 there were 295 German knitting masters in Magdeburg Working on 587 machines with the help of 165 journeymen and 157 apprentices: 106 French masters working on 250 machines, with 157 journeymen and 45 apprentices and finally 106 masters from the Palatinate with 35 journeymen and 28 apprentices working on 103 machines. H. Krüger sums up the data pertaining to Magdeburg: 507 masters, 357 journeymen, 230 apprentices with 940 knitting machines. In Halle there were three small manufactures in which on one machine there were 3-4 pairs stockings being produced per week, that is 10.191 pairs per year. Accepting the same productivity norms, the Magdeburg output can be estimated at about 40,000 pairs per year. Thus it was quite a large centre of production in which, unfortunately the lack of an adequate supply of imported silk was being felt. Durint the same period in Berlin many manufactures fell into decay and in 1739 only the establishment of François Duchesne with 14 machines had survived, while Laurent Bon was producing on two machines.55

During 1740-1755 no increase in knitting production is observed in comparison with 1728-1735. In Crefeld, the widow Peter is managing a manufacture with 24 machines. In Berlin in 1746 settles Delacroix (the name was also written: Lacroix and La Croix) from Nîmes, but establishing a larger knitting manufacture he encountered great difficulties. In 1751 he was working on only two machines, while Fasser was working on three and Cornand on one. From 1752 the enterpreneur Pierre Dambonet begins to appear in the records, while Azimont from Erlangen engaged himself in Duchesne's old manufacture. In 1753, silk stockings were being produced in Berlin on 28 machines, in 1754 on 31. This production increases after the arrival of a certain Portal from Amsterdam in 1763; in 1764 the manufacturers Grimbert and Azimont got registered, still later Bauer, Gibert and Moses Levi. The support of the Prussian authorities attracted the Huguenots who had previously settled in Holland or southern Germany. This patronized branch of production also aroused the interest of Jewish capital. In 1765 there were»already 100 machines producing silk stockings registered in Berlin.56

The knitting production in Magdeburg was developing faster and a wider raw material base was being utilized there, since the petition of 1756 refers not only to silk articles but also to linen and cotton stockings. Its production was intended for a wide market because 25 masters were producing on 40 machines the cheapest three- or even two-ply stockings. Established with state support, Bruguier's silk stockings manufacture was working from 1776 on 60 machines. In the same year in Halle a sild stockings manufacture was established with 24 machines. In this period the silk stockings manufactures in Magdeburg and Halle obtained 130 new machines in addition to the 1180 machines of 1732. In Berlin support was given to the workshop of widow Bodof, producing about 400 pairs of silk stockings yearly, and the proprietor of a manufacture, Paul Ferrier, was enabled to move there.57 We should remember that all these data pertain only to the most strongly state-supported silk knitting organized in the form of centralized manufactures. A smal amount of production of woollen products did not leave statistical documentation.

H. Hoffman has given summarized data on Prussian knitting on the basis of abundant statistical material from 1769. In Berlin itself there were 23 small silk stockings manufactures with 85 machines and as many workers. The number of people employed there was naturally several times higher counting the spinners, machine maintenance men and those working on the finishing process. Many a time manufactures had only two or even one machine, only Du Chesne, working already from 1718, had 18 of them, while Fetting from 1763 put into operation 10 machines. Much more important was one production of woollen stockings which has not been discussed yet. There were 93 enterprises with 351 machines and the same number of journeymen. 10 larger establishments were employing 10 to 33 workers. The comparison of the total number of knitting machines and workers in the whole Prussian state around 1769 provides interesting data, betraying the inaccuracy of previous data from the 1760's. In sum, 67 small manufactures were counted, of'which a small number had a couple or a few machine or workers; thus they were of craft-workshop dimensions. Then hand-made hosiery centres with 180 workers are distinguishable. Altogether, in sixty odd localities scattered over the whole territory of Prussia along with East Prussia, there were 1757 knitting machines and 2478 workers. While the first number is probably close to reality, the second number would have to be increased to take into account those working on the treatment of the raw material, spinning, finishing of products and also the construction and maintenance of the machines. It is not worthwhile enumerating here data from tables which show in many localities only a couple of knitters, although these data testify indirectly to the universality of knitting production and the need to work for the local market, which applied in particular to knitting production from wool. We should stress, however, that the whole Brandenburg region, apart from Berlin itself, had only 192 machines with 205 workers. Magdeburg had only 96 machines and 100 workers apart from 520 domestic workers engaged in the putting-out system who made woollen stockings, while the production of Halle was slightly lower.58

The heterogeneity of the rich statistical data presented by H. Hoffman means that the above-mentioned figures can be accepted only with great caution. According to different sources, the number of machines oscillated from 512 to 1757, and of workers from 2375 to 2478. Despite these differences it must be acknowledged that it was an important production centre by central European standards. Juxtaposition of data from 1769 could possibly give lower figures with respect to the volume of production on account of the Seven Years' War. The picture of the distribution of different branches of the knitting industry is clear. The state-backed manufactures of silk articles became concentrated in larger towns and were subject to oscillations in the field of raw material supply and the sale of the luxury products. Much more stable was the production of woollen knitwear in smaller towns and of urban enterprises using domestic workers in the putting-out system, who had access to indigenous raw materials and worked for the local market.

Of comparatively more importance is the chronological cross- section of the Prussian knitting industry in H. Kriiger's calculations pertaining to 1782. He ignores, however, the small craft workshops, since he is only interested in "factories", that is manufactures of different size. It emerges from these data that in the whole of Prussia there were 128 knitting machines producing stockings from fine silk, 11 from floss, or twilled silk, 172 - woollen stockings, and only 17 - cotton ones. This way the small number of 328 machines is obtained, on which work was carried out by 1635 knitters including those engaged in the finishing process. On the basis of other data, the same author mentions 141 machines producing silk stockings in 1782. From 162, 251 pairs of stockings were produced, the majority, i.e., 96,848 pairs, were of wool, 29,172 pairs were of cotton. 28,631 of silk and 7600 of twilled silk. It appears from these data that 423 pairs of stockings were being produced per year on one machine, which with 50 working weeks would give 8 pairs per week. These norms would seem lo be overestimated, although, taking into account the fairly large domestic production of hand-made knitwear, the total volume of production would not be far from reality.59

H. Kriiger's comparative data unquestionably gives us an underestimated number of knitting machines. Published sources from 1782 enumerate in Berlin 31 proprietors of manufactures, with 142 machines producing solely silk stockings with just as many masters, journeymen and apprentices. In that same year in Berlin there were 26,062 pairs of silk stockings produced, which is not much less than the number given by H. Kriiger with respect to the whole of central Prussia. In 1785 the number of knitting machines engaged in the production of silk stockings increased to 371. The above-mentioned author emphasizes the rapid development of the Berlin textile industry in the last twenty years of the eighteenth century. This development is less pronounced in provincial centres. For example, in Crefeld in 1788. there are only 18 machines working.60 The lack of uniformity of the statistical data coming from different sources makes a more accurate evaluation of the dimensions of Prussian knitting at the end of the eighteenth century impossible. Nevertheless, it does not seem to have decreased in relation to that of 1769, put simply the knitters worked mainly in scattered manufactures, small workshops and under various forms of the domestic putting-out system, and these organizational forms have not left much statistical data.

The important role played by the state in the Prussian machine knitting, must be emphasized. Apart from the Russian manufactures of Peter I from the first quarter of the eighteenth century, in no other European country did the mercantile state policy have such a strong effect on the development of textile manufactures, particularly those based on imported raw materials. In addition to tax exemptions, there were subsidies for producers as well as a protective customs policy, which favoured the importation of raw materials while rendered the importation of ready-made products difficult. At the same time, producers were provided with a labour force from compulsory workhouses, jails or orphanages and were protected against guild restrictions as regards the volume of production. All these forms of support for manufactures established by the Huguenots (the names of proprietors of manufactures persist, for example, in Berlin throughout the eighteenth century) were used in Prussia on a large scale. During the period of the rise in price of silk, a state warehouse was opened, which bought out this stock from abroad and facilitated its purchase. Similar facilities were provided for cotton and wool. The Prussian customs policy was badly affecting the production of neighbouring states, while facilitating the development of the local textile industry. Import of dyer's materials was also catered for.

The histories of individual manufactures of silk stockings described in detail in the sources, testify to the state protection extended to their owners over decades.61 The diversity of the organizational forms of the Prussian textile industry has already been underlined. Side by side with the state-protected manufactures there are craft workshops and the domestic putting-out system which depends upon trade capital. The latter is a reflection of the urban and rural production habits. Prussia in the eighteenth century was a country where hand knitting was practised as much in the drawing-rooms and modest homes of the burghers, as in compulsory workhouses, orphanages, hospitals, barracks and village cottages. D. Chodowiecki portrays women engaged in hand knitting. Soldiers knitting stockings on guard duty was a familiar sight in small Prussian towns and on the gradually conquered Polish lands. A Polish diarist from Cracow wrote in 1794-1796: "One could see Prussian soldiers sitting on doorsteps and knitting blue woollen stockings on needles".62

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