Translated by Agnieszka Szonert

Warszawa 1991

Oficyna Wydawnicza „AKCENT" Komoröw, tel. (22) 58-07-34

Pracç opiniowali do druku:

Irena Huml-Bacz i Maria Taszycka

Praca wykonana czçsciowo w ramach Centralnego Planu Badari Podstawowych 08.07

Cover illustration

Silesian knitted carpet from 1674

National Museum in Wroclaw

ISBN 83-900213-2-3

Table of contents

  1. Introduction / 5—12
  2. The Beginnings of Hand Knitting / 13-19
  3. Knitting or Knotless Netting / 13—15
  4. Knitwear in the Early Middle Ages / 15-19
  5. The First Technical Upheaval in European Knitting in the Thirteenth Century and the Appearance of Guilds / 20 — 23
  6. Hand-Knitting Production in the Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries / 24—46
  7. Knitting in Italy and Spain / 24 — 25
  8. Knitting in the British Isles / 25-28
  9. Knitting in France / 28 — 33
  10. Knitting in Switzerland and in the Netherlands / 33-34
  11. Knitting in Central Europe / 34 — 41
  12. Knitting in Eastern and Northern Europe / 41—46
  13. Knitting outside Europe / 46
  14. Diffusion of the Knitting Machine in England and France from the End of the Sixteenth to the End of the Eighteenth Century / 47—66
  15. Vicissitudes of William Lee's Device / 47 — 49
  16. Diffusion of the Knitting Frame in the British Isles / 49 — 53
  17. Diffusion of the Knitting Frame in France from the Middle of the Seventeenth Century to the End of the Eighteenth Century / 53-66
  18. Diffusion of the Knitting Machine and Manufactures in Southern, Central, Northern and Eastern Europe from the End of the Seventeenth to the End of the Eighteenth Century / 67-98
  19. Italian, Spanish and Swiss Knitting / 67 — 69
  20. Knitting Production in the Netherlands / 70
  21. Bohemian, Austrian and Hungarian Knitting / 71—77
  22. Knitting in Different German Countries / 77 — 87
  23. Machine Knitting in Scandinavia / 87 — 88
  24. Machine Knitting on the Lands of the Former Polish Republic and Silesia and West Pomerania / 88-93
  25. Machine Knitting in Russia, the Ukraine and the Baltic Countries / 93—97
  26. Knitting in Rumania and in the Countries of the Balkan Peninsula / 97
  27. The Hosiery on Knitting Frames outside Europe / 98
  28. Techniques of Hand- and Machine-Knitting Production / 99 — 118
  29. Production Premises / 99-100
  30. Treatment of the Raw Material and Spinning / 100— 101
  31. Hand-Knitting Technique / 101-105
  32. Machine-Knitting Technique / 105—108
  33. Technical Development of the Knitting Machine in the Eighteenth Century I 108-112
  34. Finishing of the Knitwear / 112—117
  35. Productivity Norms in Hand and Machine Knitting / 117—118
  36. Consumption of Knitted Garments in Europe in the Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries I 119-145
  37. Assortment of Hand- and Machine-Knitted Products / 119

Headgear / 119-125 Knitted Garments / 125-130 Hand Coverings / 131 — 136 Leg Coverings / 136—142 Other Products / 142 2. The Use^of Knitted Garments in Different European Countries / 143—145

IX. (I. Turnau with K.G. Ponting) Knitted Masterpieces / 146-162

Introduction / 146-154 Catalogue / 154-162

  1. Silesian / 154-157
  2. Alsatian / 157-160
  3. German / 160-162
  4. Peasant Knitting / 163-174
  5. Research Problems / 163—164
  6. Tools and Patterns used in Popular Knitting / 164— 166
  7. Knitted Fabrics in European Popular Costume / 166—172
  8. Peasant Knitting outside Europe / 172—174
  9. Conclusion / 175-180

Footnotes / 181-211

List of Ilustrations / 212-214

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