Knitting For Profit Ebook

Knitting For Profit Ebook

A wonderful New Book That Shows Step-by-step How To Make Money From Knitting Or Crochet. Ideal for Home-based Business And Work-at-home Mums, And Discovering how to Turn A Hobby Into Real money Income! Using this Detailed Breakthrough Information You'll Know How To: Start a Successful knitting business. It's a fact 95% of people who start a small business fail within the first year. Now you can understand how to be in the successful 5% group and continue making money from your knitting business permanently. Benefit from your knitting even when you have no idea what to sell. If you've ever planned to knit products that sell extremely well, but simply dont know What products to create or whether they will sell or not, then don't worry. Indeed this strategy teach you what knitted products will sell well with many, many real examples, but you'll also learn more than a dozen methods to fire up your knitterpreneur creativity and accelerate your ability to create knitted products that will truly sell. Earn money from your knitt. Read more...

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Warp Knitting Machines

Warp knitting machines (picture 126) are used in the production of run-proof fabrics. The frame of a warp knitting machine must be particularly sturdy and resistant since it must accommodate a number of moving components. Picture 126 - A typical warp knitting machine Picture 126 - A typical warp knitting machine

The Fundamentals Casting On Knitting Purling and Binding

Casting stitches on and off your needles Getting the hang of basic knitting techniques Changing things up with basic purling techniques Giving Continental style a whirl o here you are, a ball of yarn in one hand and two knitting needles in the other. To be a successful knitter, the first things you need to do are figure out how to get the one (yarn) onto the other (the needles) and, after achieving that, how to make the thing grow. The answers Casting on and knitting and purling. Knit and purl stitches are the two stitches upon which all other knitting techniques are based. When you're comfortable with these stitches, you can create any number of amazing things. Knitting is hugely relaxing after you know the basics. As you pick up the techniques and practice them, keep these things in mind I Learning to knit can be a little stressful. Your fingers have to work in ways they're not accustomed to, and the illustrations that are decluttered for clarity make actual yarn-on-needles...

Knitting in the Round

Knitting in the round, or circular knitting, is what you do when you want to knit a tube. Hats, socks, mittens, gloves, and skirts are frequently knit in the round. When you knit in the round, you knit around and around on the right side only. Therefore, if you're working in stockinette stitch, knitting in the round eliminates the need to purl. It also reduces the necessity of sewing seams, so that finishing is quicker and easier. Circular Knitting Basics 84

Gauge In Circular Knitting

If the fit is crucial, then you should make a swatch that reflects your in-the-round gauge. Some knitters, particularly Continental-method knitters, achieve a tighter gauge in circular knitting than they do in flat knitting, due to purl stitches in flat knitting coming out looser than knit stitches. To make a swatch that reflects your circular knitting gauge, use two double-pointed needles the same size that you are going to use for the body of your project. Cast onto one double-pointed needle the equivalent of 4 or 5 inches worth of stitches, and then knit 1 row with the second double-pointed needle. Instead of turning the work and purling the next row, bring the Many knitters complain of a ladder of loose stitches along the vertical line where the two needles come together in circular knitting. With circular needles, this occurs only along the join of the round, but on double-pointed needles, it can appear between each needle. To improve the appearance of the stitches that lie at...

Knitting And Sewing

There are two ways of slipping a stitch as though about, to knit it and as though to purl it. Use the first on knitting rows and patterns and the latter on purling rows and patterns. (1) Throwing the wool over the top of the needle between two stitches, and knitting off this throw over as a stitch on the next row this makes a small pattern (2) Knitting first in the front of the loop and then in the back of the loop before slipping the stitch off the left hand needle this also makes a small pattern (3) Knitting up a stitch in the loop of the stitch underneath, i.e., the stitch of the preceding row this hardly shows. In narrowing, knitting two stitches together in the front loops of the stitches will make the narrowing slant from left to right. Knitting two stitches together in the back loops of the stitches will make the narrowing slant from right to left. Press knitting with a damp cloth over it and an iron that is not too hot, as wool scorches easily. As a rule, do not press ribbing...

Same Stitch Different Look Knitting and Purling

Knitting creates fabric of interlocking loops. Knitting and its best buddy purling, which you'll also learn about in this chapter, are two complementary ways to create and join these loops. You knit or purl in rows, using die stitches you cast on the needle. Here's where things get interesting Knitting and purling are actually the same stitch. The only difference lies in whether you pull a loop toward you or move it away from you. When you look at a knit stitch on the reverse side of die fabric, it looks exacdy like a purl stitch when you look at a purl stitch on the reverse side of the fabric, it looks exacdy like a knit stitch. If you purl every row, you'll ultimately end up with a fabric that looks exactly die same as if you knit every row. This concept might sound confusing, but as you begin watching what your hands are doing, you'll understand how knitting and purling interact to create interesting patterns and effects.

Uses For And Advantages Of Circular Knitting

Circular knitting is great for making hats, mittens, socks, gloves, and a lot of other things. You can also knit certain sweaters in the round. Because most items that are knit in the round are worked in one piece, the need for extensive finishing, seaming, and weaving-in of ends is diminished. Another benefit is that you're always working from the right side As a result, stranded color knitting and elaborate stitch patterns are easier to follow continuously.

Measuring Your Knitting

You should measure your knitting frequently to ensure that your gauge is correct. To measure, lay your knitted piece out on a flat, smooth surface do not stretch, distort, or scrunch it up. Measure width at the widest point, as the area near the ribbing or the needle will not give the most accurate reading. Measure length at the center from the lower edge to just under the knitting needle.

Knitting Beads Into Stocking Stitch

When you knit with beads, you need to thread the beads onto your yam befae you start knitting. If your yam is thin enough, you can thread it on a needle, then pass the needle through the centre of each bead. But if your yam is too thick to do this, use the technique fa threading given here. Fold a length of fine but strong sewing thread around the end of your knitting yam, then thread both ends of the sewing thread through the needle. Pass the needle through the beads and push the beads over the needle and sewing thread and onto the looped yam as shown. 2 Push the bead up close to the front of the knitting. Then take the yam to the back of the work between the two needles, leaving the bead at the front. Knit the next stitch tightly to keep the bead in place.

Smalldiameter Circular Knitting Machines

All the machines with a diameter ranging from 3 to 5 inches and which are mainly used for hosiery production are classified as small-diameter circular knitting machines. There are many types of machines in the hosiery field, but basically they can be subdivided into two main categories in relation to the goods they manufacture Picture 118 - Overall view of a hosiery machine The fundamental construction elements of a hosiery knitting machine are usually - knitting head including the needle-bed and the motions that command the elements operating during the stitch formation

Knitting up good karma

The repetitive movements of needles and yarn truly knit up the raveled sleeve of care. Have you ever noticed a knitter's face while working away on the needles Did you see the expression of relaxed alertness The rhythmic movements of knitting, together with the mental focus needed for building fabric stitch by stitch, make for a kind of meditation. It's real. Ask anyone who knits. And if you carry your knitting wherever you go, you always bring along a little well-being with you. In an increasingly global and anonymous world, a knitting project at hand reminds you of the comforts and familiarity of things small, local, and individual.

Knitting Colorful Stripes

Knitting colored stripes is a quick and easy way to get started in color work. Unlike other color techniques, such as Fair Isle or intarsia knitting that require you to go back and forth between colors in a single row (see Chapter 13), colored stripes allow you to use as many colors as you please while working with only one color at a time. While knitting different colored stripes can be a lot of fun and an opportunity to let your creative juices flow, there are a few things you need to be able to do before you jump in. The following sections get you ready.

Make a Gift of Your Knitting

Many of the designs in the book were planned as gift ideas. A new baby is a great incentive to begin knitting, or it can act as the catalyst to return to the craft. I have included very easy patterns that are ideal for the novice knitter, such as the super-easy Blanket and Hat and the Cat, Rabbit, and Teddy Bear toys. More traditional gift ideas include the hats and booties ensembles. I designed the multicolored square Cot Blanket with the idea that a group of friends, family members, or a knitting group could make the project together, with each knitter making a square in a different color. When alJ the squares are completed, they can then be sewn together and presented at a baby shower, a beautiful way of showing your love and creating an heirloom to pass on for many generations.

Choosing Needles for Circular Knitting

Circular and double-pointed needles are designed for knitting in the round and, as Chapter 2 explains, come in the same sizes as regular knitting needles. When you select circular or double-pointed needles for your projects, keep these things in mind 1 Circular needle The needle length you choose for your project must be a smaller circumference than the tube you plan to knit otherwise, you won't be able to comfortably stretch your stitches around the needle. For example, to knit a hat that measures 21 inches around, you need a 16-inch needle because 21 inches worth of stitches won't stretch around 24 inches of needle (which is the next size up from a 16-inch needle). We know it sounds counterintuitive to need a needle smaller in circumference than the knitted project, but the problem is that, because there's no break no first stitch or last stitch (after all you're knitting a tube) you can only stretch the fabric as far as you can stretch any two stitches. A 21-inch circular project...

Knitting instructions

After all the introductory information, the instructions for knitting your sweater begin. In general, most patterns for cardigans and pullovers begin with the back piece. Here the pattern tells you how many stitches to cast on and what to do with them. i Instructions for the front (or fronts if you're knitting a cardigan). Generally, the instructions for the front mirror those of the back until it's time to shape the front neckline.

Jersey Knitting Machines

Since single-bed circular knitting machines are equipped with a single series of needles, they are suitable for jersey manufacturing and, with the necessary mechanical modifications, also for manufacturing jersey-derived fabrics such as terry and fleece. Some machine models are equipped with 4 to 6 colour stripe pattern motions for striped jersey. Almost all the machines of new construction are equipped with special devices that allow the use of elastane yarns. Recently, some manufacturers have also introduced machines complete with a conversion kit for the knitting head to rapidly transform the jersey machine into a fleece or terry knitting machine.

Buying Yarn For A Knitting Pattern

Try to buy the yam specified in your knitting pattern however, if you prefer to use a substitute, buy a yam that is the same weight and has the same tension (see Tension on page 20), and where possible the same fibre content. If you use a synthetic yam instead of a natural fibre, a even wool where cotton had been aiginally used, the stitch patterns may appear softer and less delineated. Synthetics can also appear limp, which means that the cnspness of the original garment will have been lost. It is essential to check metreage a yardage. Yam that weighs the same may have different lengths, and you may need to buy more a less yam. weight and metreage a yardage. Some of them will tell you the knitting needle sizes to use and the standard tension (a stitch size) these create. Taking care of your knitted garments is important. If you have invested all that time and labour into knitting them, you want them to look good

Sliver or highpile knitting

Sliver or high-pile knitting is single-jersey made on a circular machine having sliver feeds where the stock- or dope-dyed slivers are drawn from cans at ground level. They are then prepared by mini three-roller drafting card units followed by two wire-covered rollers that draw and transfer the thin film of fibres to the needles (Fig. 14.6). At each sliver feed, the needles are lifted to an extra high level where they rise through the wires of the doffer roller to collect a tuft of staple fibres in their hooks. Air-jet nozzles over the knitting points ensure that the tufts are retained in the needle hooks and that the free fibre ends are orientated through to the inside of the fabric tube (the technical back), which is the pile side. Borg Textiles pioneered specialised sliver knitting in the 1950s in co-operation with Wildman Jacquard although J. C. Tauber obtained US patents as early as 1914. A typical machine now has a diameter of 24 inches in a gauge of 10npi and runs at 45rpm with...

Knittingneedle method

Classy clickers know that if you want the new piece of work to gather the original fabric, or vice versa, you start by knitting up in the usual way. In the first row, decrease or increase as the case may be. If working with sets of double-pointed needles, decide beforehand which are the best points for changing needles. Knit up accordingly, even if some needles end up with more stitches than others.

Needle Types And Lengths For Circular Knitting

You can knit in the round on circular needles or on sets of double-pointed needles. Circular needles, which come in a variety of materials and lengths, are basically needle tips connected by a plastic or nylon cord. Whether you use wood, metal, or plastic is up to you. The circumference of what you are going to knit determines what length of needle you can use your pattern should specify that length. Before circular needles were invented, people knit in the round on double-pointed needles. Today, double-pointed needles are used mainly for smaller items, like hats and socks. They are sold in sets of four or five. If you're knitting an item that starts out with a circumference wide enough for a circular needle, but decreases to a circumference too short for a circular needle, then you can change from the circular needle to double-pointed needles at that point in the project. Slippery metal double-pointed needles can produce a lot of dropped stitches. Try using bamboo or wood...

An edging or a border can be added to the main body of the knitting by sewing it on see pages or by

To pick up along a cast-on cast-off edge (for instance along cast-off stitches at back neck), have the right side of the work facing you and insert the point of the right-hand needle from front to back under both loops of the cast-on or cast-off edge of the first stitch, wind the yarn round the point of the needle and draw a loop through, as though knitting a stitch, to form a new stitch on the needle. Continue in this way along the edge for as many stitches as required. To pick up along a side edge (for instance along the straight front edge of jacket), have the right side of the work facing you and insert the point of the right-hand needle from front to back between the first and second stitch of the first row (working one whole stitch in from the edge). Wind the yarn round the point of the needle and draw a loop through, as though knitting a stitch, to form a new stitch on the needle. Continue in this way along the edge for as many stitches as required. If the yarn is very thick,...

Machine Knitting Technique

Here we shall describe the functioning of the simplest knitting machine without touching upon its improvements in the second half of the eighteenth century. P. Lewis published recently a very important paper about technical evolution and economic viability of William Lee's stocking frame in 1589-1750 and announced the next article about the evolution of the handframe in the second half of the eighteenth century. She presented a very good description of the English machine of its parts and the changes of the trucks, the sley, the caster-backs, hanging-bit and front stops. I have decided to give my old description published in 1962 and 1979 because it concernes mainly the machines used in the European continent. They were usually less complicated and it is interesting to me that Lee's invention was used mainly in the poor countries of central and eastern Europe. But a general description is necessary.17 (II. 17) The oldest flat knitting frame consisted of wooden stationary parts and a...

Circular warp knitting

Tubular, seamless, extensible nets for fishnet patterned stockings, fruit sacks, and medical support bandages can be knitted on simple, small-diameter circular warp knitting machines. The vertical latch needles are fixed to the needle cylinder, collectively rising and falling with it. They are in a conical arrangement so the hooks form a smaller circle than the stems. The warp yarn is supplied through guide-eyes drilled in a ring. The ring turns to overlap the hooks when the needles are raised and produces underlaps at the back of the needles when they are lowered. For a simple balanced net, two full rings are used.

Knitting into the stitch below

Knitting into the stitch below is a technique often used for increasing stitches. If your instructions tell you to knit (or purl) into the stitch below, often abbreviated klb or k-b (or plb or p-b for purling), follow these steps (adjust them to purl into the stitch below)

The contra knitting technique

Contra Knitting Technique

On certain single-jersey machines, the 'contra' ('relative' or 'shared loop') knitting technique is now employed, for example by the Mayer method (Fig. 13.13). As well as having the normal radial movement between the needles, the sinkers move vertically down, in opposition to the needles rise to clearing height, and rise as the needles descend to knock-over. This considerably reduces the extent of the needle movement. One loop is almost fully formed before the next is started. There are thus less yarn metal contact points (each of which doubles the tension of the previous point). This reduces the tendency to 'rob back', produces less stress on the knitting elements, improves fabric quality, and enables weak and delicate yarns to be knitted. The shorter needle movement allows shallower cam angles and faster speeds to be obtained. Fig. 13.13 The Relanit contra knitting action. Fig. 13.13 The Relanit contra knitting action.

History Of Knitting Industry

The aim of the present book is to fill the gap in the history of the textile industry. The history of English knitting has already been elaborated in other countries, however, interest has been limited to the production of certain regions only or discussion has centred on particular collections of relics. There has been no research done into the knitting of southern, central and eastern Europe. Therefore, we shall discuss the problem of knitting production, beginning with Coptic and Arabian articles, passing on to the introduction of knitting with five needles instead of two, somewhere around the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century, and finally to the blossoming of hand knitting in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the invention of the simple knitting machine in 1589. This tool-type frame, the most perfect of all, became very popular in England and France during the seventeenth century and in a majority of European countries between the end of the seventeenth and...

Old Knitting Catalogue

Gossamer Crocheted Wedding Veil

Researching a book can be more exciting than writing it. The people, cups of tea and home-bakes, and the very special pieces of knitting I was shown helped in this task. Descriptions and photographs will never recreate the charm of seeing and handling a rare shawl or allover and hearing first-hand of its creation and the special details that make it totally unique. The cover shows a sketch of a Shetland 'wife' dressed in a striped 'cot' (skirt) with a 'hap' (shawl) over her head, busily knitting on her three 'wires' as she carries a 'kishie of peats' from the peatbank to the stack at her croft. Time was too precious to allow for idle hands. Crepe shawls, marvellous specimens of knitting, in the same quality of wool as the very fine lace shawls but in a plain knit pattern, were also on offer. Their very plainness tested the knitter, since each fine stitch had to be correct to achieve overall evenness of texture. Motoring scarves and neckties cost 8s to 40s, the lacier the dearer....

Bead Knitting Prestrung Knitted through Stitches

Bead Knitting

As described in Chapters I and 4, true Bead Knitting, with stockinette stitch as its base, entails two premises that a bead is actually worked through all stitches, and that every stitch is subsequently secured on the following row by working through its back loop. I his is known as rhe Eastern or Oriental method. On the subsequent row, working normally into the stitch with the twist opposite from normal creates the right slant. Working into the back loop of this srirch with rhe twist opposite from normal creates a regular fabric with no twist (often referred ro as Eastern Uncrossed Knitting). A fabric of only these right-twisted stitches (pictured ar rhe top of page 40) is rhe exact mirror image of the left-twisted stitches with beads pictured at rop lefr on this page. In what is sometimes referred to as Plaited Knitting, a row ol left-twisted stitches alternates with a row of right-twisted siiiches. 1 his alternation almost creates a herringbone effect. See example on page 40. L)o...

Knitting in Rumania and in the countries of the Balkan Peninsula

No data are available about the use of the knitting machine in these countries up to the end of the eighteenth century, except for Dalmatia which has already been covered in the discussion on Italian knitting. The national dress worn both in Moldavia, as in Wallachia, in Transylvania, Bulgaria and different countries of Yugoslavia did not require the use of hosiery. They were not manufactured in the Turkish state. In Bulgaria the first textile manufactures came into being only in the thirties of the nineteenth century.104 The rich and variegated folk knitting of these countries probably developed relatively late, although in the eighteenth century there may have been a limited hand-knitting production in the mountainous regions. The Hosiery on Knitting Frames outside Europe Under the influence of English hosiery the first knitting frames began to be used in North America and later in the United States of America in the eighteenth century.105 The earliest history of American hosiery...

Knitting Terms And Abbreviations

Knitting. garter stitch Knit every row. Circular knitting knit one round, then purl one round. rev St st reverse Stockinette stitch-Purl right-side rows, knit wrong-side rows. Circular knitting purl all rounds. (UK reverse stocking stitch) rnd(s) round(s) RH right-hand RS right side(s)

The knitting action of the latch needle

Knitting Cycle Latch

Figure 3.4 shows the position of a latch needle as it passes through the cam system, completing one knitting cycle or course as it moves up and in its trick or slot. NB Although the above knitting action is described assuming the needle to be moving through the knitted loops, the movement is relative and the same effect can be achieved by moving the loops over a stationary needle. Similarly, the knock-over Fig. 3.4 Knitting action of the latch needle. Fig. 3.4 Knitting action of the latch needle.

Seamless glove knitting

Shima Seike Mechanism

The Shima Seiki Company has perfected a fully-automatic method of glove knitting in tubular plain on a small width V-bed machine (Fig. 19.8). Each finger is knitted in turn from its tip, with its loops then being held until the palm sequence commences. The glove is completed and pressed-off with an elasticated mock rib cuff. Control of knitting across the varying width is assisted by spring-controlled holding-down sinkers (now housed in the needle cylinder) and a variable traverse of the cam-carriage. A digital inverter provides infinitely variable speeds and smooth operation. Machine gauges range from coarse gauge E 5, E 7, E 8 to fine E 10, for work, driving and fashion gloves. E 13 and E 15 are ultra-fine for precision work and special applications. Knitting speeds are approximately 1 minute 40 seconds for an E 5 glove to 3 minutes 7 seconds for an E 13 glove. An associated development is the five-toe sock-knitting machine in E 10 and E 13 gauges with 60 and 74 needles. It has a...

Knitting in Italy and Spain

The increasing demand for knitted products, observable already in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and the parallel improvements in production techniques gave stimulus to the development of hand knitting in the early sixteenth century. The best known is the guild organization of production as it is much better documented than the rural, home or convent production. The dates of statutes indicate usually the registration of several guild workshops. Hand knitting adapted easily to the putting-out system. As a relatively easy technique it did not require expensive tools, but was extremely time-consuming. Hand knitting, as compared to spinning on the spindle, did not disturb other domestic chores to be simultaneously being carried out it could also constitute one of the activities of itinerants or shepherds. This important feature of knitting was taken into account in the exploitation of the labor force at the beginnings of the capitalist system. Hand knitting was charged to...

Knitting All Over

Howfabiimustbetohavea 'holiday grandma'. Have you learned many new skills from her The Portuguese style of knitting is very distinctive, and I'm intrigued by Portuguese knitting needles, which are hooked, but find my straights much easier to knit with I love the Made ran hats, too, with their bobbles and earflaps. ,t We'd love to see more pictures of you with Simply Knitting for even ust your knitting ) jn foreign lands. Don't forget, the sender of every letter will receive a brilliant mini knitting kit from Coats Crafts UK. J *jinitting Ail Over The World, Simply Knitting, Future, 30 Monmouth Street, Bath BA1 2BW Or you can email us at simplyknittirg futureret.com BUY, SELL, SWAP YOUR KNITTING STUFF WITH OUR FREE ADS I have a number of new knitting books for sale at reasonable prices, some for babies and tod d lers designer knits and for women. Teresa Benton, Cley Cottage, The Walway Walcott, Norfolk NR1Z ONB 01691651133 teresa acguk.com lam lookingfora Kermitthe Frog...

Classification of Knitting Machines

Warp Knitting Machines

The former type of machine incorporates needles which are moved individually by cams acting on the needle butt they are used for producing weft knits and are subdivided into circular knitting machines and flat-bed knitting machines. The needles used can be latch needles or compound needles. The needle bar machines incorporate needles which move simultaneously, since they are all fixed to the same bar we distinguish full-fashioned knitting machines and circular loop-wheel machines for the production of weft knit fabrics, which only use spring-beard needles, and warp knitting machines which use spring-beard needles, latch needles and compound needles.

Knitting lace knittingdaily presents

The very phrase evokes clouds of soft finery, light enough to pass through the proverbial wedding ring. Our grandmother's grandmother knit lace, in Estonia, Russia, Ireland, France we see examples of fine lace knitting in museums and we gasp at the beauty and at the skill and patience required to call forth thousands of intricate stitches on needles no wider than a toothpick. And yet, look around-lace knitting is not relegated only to dusty cases in museums, or faded photographs in history books. Lace knitting is now vibrant, and modern, and more popular than ever Today, everything from hats to sweaters incorporates the beauty of knitted lace knitting one's first lace scarf or shawl has become a rite of passage in the knitting community, with thousands of knitters on the internet ready to mentor the next wave of knitters as they discover the joy of making holes in their knitting. In this collection, I've tried to capture the range and versatility that is lace knitting...

The three classes of weft knitting machines

Vintage Hosiery Machinery

The three main groups of weft knitting machinery may broadly be classified as either straight bar frames, flats, or circulars, according to their frame design and needle bed arrangement. Straight bar frames are a specific type of machine having a vertical bar of bearded needles whose movement is controlled by circular engineering cams attached to a revolving cam-shaft in the base of the machine. The length of the machine is divided into a number of knitting heads ('sections' or 'divisions') and each head is capable of knitting a separate but identically-dimensioned fashion-shaped garment panel. At either edge of each knitting head, a group of rackably-controlled points transfer loops to fashion shape the garment panel at the selvedges by widening or narrowing the knitting width. On completion of the garment panel, it is pressed-off the needles. As straight bar frames have a single needle bar, they are unable to knit rib welts. A few rib frames (with a horizontal as well as a vertical...

Stitch bonding or web knitting

Malimo Maliwatt

Warp knitting machine builders Karl Mayer build a range of Malimo stitch bonding machines (Fig. 30.4) 8 . Whereas warp and weft knitting construct fabrics from yarns, stitch bonding constructs fabrics from a medium such as a fibrous web using purely mechanical means. It is therefore a highly-productive method of producing textile substrates for industrial end-uses. Warp yarn guide needle Fig. 30.4 Malimo stitch bonding machine knitting head Karl Mayer .

Structural modifications commonly used in weft and warp knitting

Cross Section Weft Knitted

Certain techniques are possible during the knitting action that can radically change the physical appearance and properties of a knitted construction without seriously affecting the cohesive nature of the loop structure. These techniques may be broadly divided into four groups - laying-in, plating, open-work and plush pile. Although these techniques can be achieved on most knitting machines, slight modifications are often necessary and the more sophisticated versions of these techniques may require specially-designed knitting machines. Inlaid (or laid-in) fabric consists of a ground structure of knitted or overlapped (warp knitted) threads that hold in position other non-knitted threads which were incorporated (laid-in) into the structure during the same knitting cycle. An inlaid yarn is never formed into a knitted loop, although in weft knitting, when using only one bed of needles, it is necessary to form the inlay yarn into occasional tuck stitches in order to hold it in the...

Doublebed Circular Knitting Machines

The most widespread version of double-bed circular knitting machine is equipped with two needle-beds positioned at 90 the vertical needle-bed is called cylinder while the horizontal one is called dial. Another version of double-bed circular knitting machines features needle-beds positioned at 180 these machines are called double-cylinder machines (or links-links machines). They incorporate two needle-beds called lower and upper cylinder with the grooves of the two cylinders aligned to one another. These machines feature special double latch needles that can be racked from one needle-bed to the other one to knit the stitch on the lower or on the upper cylinder.

Knitting Yarns And Pattern S

Alan Dart Fotos

Most yarnsare in natural colours and come in Double Knitting weight. Many are also In 4-Ply while some come In Light Aran, Aran Or Chunky. Please contact us with queries or if you want something from our specialist dye plant. * ( ri al Gadgets - Flower & Knitting looms if you want to add a bit of sparkle to your knitting, Louisa Harding's yarns are afun choice. Merletto is made up of fine matte and shiny strands spun together. This gives theyarn a plump, round finish and means that the knitted fabric is a mix of dull and gleaming stitches. This gives it a subtle shimmer This construction means that it's quiteeasy to split theyarn with your needle and wisps of linen will be visible on the surface of your knitting. Hand wash only anddryflat. The Knitting Academy Cemstone Whetheryou're a parent or a grandparent, or simply love knittingdolisand toys, this book has something for you. The book contains five main doll patterns, most with a fantasy theme, but cleverly usesjust one basic...

Beaded Knitting Hoisted atop Stitches

Hoisting heads atop stitches is one of my favorite methods of getting beads on knitting. I adapted the technique from machine knitting. It requires no pre-stringing, vet it is an integral part of the fabric. An unstrung bead is hoisted atop a whole stitch. Work up to the actual srirch that will hold the bead. Place the bead on the American Beadle or crochet hook, l ake the stitch off the knitting needle and transfer it to the small hook. Place the stitch back on rhe knitting needle. It is now ready to be knitted or slipped as if to purl (nor worked). My preference is to slip the stitch because it forms a small float or strand behind the beaded srirch. Not only does this method make the bead stand out from the stitch, it protects the bead from skin oils and vice versa. There is nothing like the feel of cold beads against the body on a frigid, winter morning Working the stitch does mean that the bead is positioned fully away from the needles, and eases the knitting process somewhat. Ir...

Knitting welts and rib borders

Garment-length knitting sequences vary considerably. The simplest circular garment machines knit repeat sequences of rib borders and body panels in a continuous structure at high speed. This structure requires cutting into garment lengths and seaming to produce a secure welt edge. Most garment machines knit some form of secure welt edge at the start of the garment sequence and either a 'knitted-in' separation course (draw-thread or dissolving thread) or 'press-off' separation between each garment piece. In the latter case, the machine must be capable of commencing knitting of the next garment length on empty needles. Shaping of flat garment panels is either in the form of cut edges or in the form of knitted selvedges (in the case of reciprocating knitting on a flat machine). The amount of shape introduced into the garment also varies in some cases this is

The knitting action of the bearded needle

The knitting action of the bearded needle has been illustrated in Fig. 3.1. Depending upon the machine, the needles are set vertically or horizontally. The needle has the disadvantage of requiring a pressing edge to close the bearded hook and enclose the new loop. The presser may be in the form of a bar, blade, verge or wheel, with either the presser or the needle remaining stationary whilst the other element moves towards it. Another feature of bearded needle knitting is that individual loop formation has to be achieved by a loop forming element. This leads to a more complicated knitting action but also provides for a more gentle and careful loop formation.

The development of warp knitting

Warp knitting, the second and smaller section of machine knitting, was never a hand-manipulated craft. It was first developed by Crane and Porter in 1769 as a method of embroidery plating, by means of multiple warp thread guides, onto stocking fabric as it was being knitted on the hand frame. As the technique improved, purely warp intermeshed loop structures without the weft knitted ground began to be knitted and Crane patented his warp loom in 1775. Tarrat is credited with developing the first efficient treadle-operated warp knitting frame in 1785. Two important later developments were Dawson's wheels for shog-ging the guide bars, and Brown's use of two separately-controlled, warp-supplied guide bars. In 1807, another Nottingham frame-smith, S. Orgill, introduced the rotary shaft driven knitting frame, having a width up to 72 inches (1.8 m) and cam-controlled knitting motions capable of knitting up to 30 rows (courses) of loops per minute. The German warp knitting industry developed...

History Of Knitting

Prince Wales Lander Portrait

It is hard to say when knitting was first discovered and by whom, because dating its origin is complicated by the fragile and perishable nature of natural fibers. Knitting in some form has, however been around since Roman times, and new discoveries of ancient knitted fabrics are being made that add depth to our knowledge of this craft. Knitting then Original fragments excavated by archaeologists from a Roman-era site dating to a.d. 256 at Dura Europas were originally considered to be the first knitted remains.They have, however now been identified as having been created not by knitting but by another technique known as 'nalbinding' (also spelled nilbinding, naalbinding, and nalebinding).This is a method of creating a stretchy fabric using short lengths of yarn and a single-eyed needle.The material is formed by looping the yarn through at least two previously created loops, gradually building up row upon row of loops. As with knitting, the thickness of the fabric depends on the type of...

Knitting in the British Isles

The British Isles, and particularly southern England, distinguished themselves, in the fifteenth century, by the extensive production of hand knitting. The question of guild organization, which were always rather weak in that country, is not of great importance in view of the many and varied relics coming from archaelogical excavations. They give eviden evidence of the existence of large knitting extablishments in the oldest part of London and in South-East England.5 Archival data on these craft workshops would give new light to the beginnings of English knitting. Knitting craftsmen were also working in smaller towns, such as Worcester in the sixteenth century.6 The knitting production in the British Isles, which utilized indigenous raw materials, has not been elaborated The last studies in Pasold Fund editions discuss some detailed questions of English hand knitting though a detailed history of hand-knitter guilds is still a waiting its author. Already M. Hartley and J. Ingilby...

Diffusion of the Knitting Frame in the British Isles

Fragmentary data on the life-history of William Lee tell us that he devoted the period from 1589 to the beginning of the seventeenth century to perfecting his invention and to the construction of a new model which enabled the production of silk stockings. At that time he was loosely connected with the London knitters' guild, while the contract from 1600 evidences an attempt at starting production on a large scale. This attempt failed and Lee left for France. The last information about him comes from Rouen in 1614.13 After his death, the inventor's brother James Lee returned with a part of the machinery and apprentices to London, while other experts went to seek their fortune in Venice and Holland.14 There is little information on the initial period of the establishment of the knitting machine in England, and the time of English revolution did not favour the spread f the new branch of textile production on a larger scale. The stimulus to the uitroduction of the machine in the...

Machine Knitting in Scandinavia

In Scandinavian countries hand knitting along with the knotless netting technique satisfied the clothing requirements of the inhabitants. The knitting machine probably appeared early in Sweden, because Jonas Alstr mer brought a few models of it in 1723 and opened a manufacture in a complex of textile establishments near G teborg. One of these machines of the most simple construction datable 1723 has been preserved in the Tekniske Museet in Stockholm. The second knitting manufacture was the establishment of J. Corbier in 1732. The first attempts to limit importation with the help of the textile manufactures arise in Sweden in 1649. However, the ban on the import of silk products is removed in 1724 and re-imposed in 1739 the largest Swedish silk production dates to the sixties of the eighteenth century. At that very time knitting production based on imported silk as well as on local wool increases. We do not know, however, the dimensions of these first manufactures.63 The knitting...

The computerised knitting machine

Although knitting is still a mechanical action between the yarn and the knitting elements, the design of tomorrow's machines will be increasingly influenced by the facilities offered by electronics (Fig. 19.13). Thus, whereas on mechanically-controlled knitting machines nearly all the mechanical movements are linked to, and are triggered by, the revolution of the machine or traverse of the cam carriage, electronic controls can be dispersed and separately operated. The electronically-controlled knitting machine can be part of a network of management communication links. A single control unit can control a complete bank of machines if necessary. Fig. 12.2 Knitting patterns and programmes are quickly generated using automatic routines. These are checked and can be transmitted on-line to the CMS knitting machine. Simultaneous monitoring of production can also be achieved Stoll SIRIX . Fig. 12.2 Knitting patterns and programmes are quickly generated using automatic routines. These are...

Knitting in Switzerland and in the Netherlands

Swiss knitting developed in the seventeenth century. The information that the first stockings knitted with five needles were produced about 1560 is untrue because this technique had been known 200 years earlier.34 Hand knitting developed first on the borderland with Alsace, about 30 workshops functioning in Basle and vicinity. Rules for journeymen from Freiburg date from 1591. Producers of knitted leggings were organizationally connected with clothiers, while a journeyman's pay was fixed at one pfenning per week.35 Already in 1644 knitting was taught along with spinning in the orphanage of this town. In 1672 a statute was conferred on the hand-knitters' guild in Berne, in 1676 in Unteraargau, Aarwangen, Wangen and Bipp. Individual guild masters also used outworkers, placing orders with local villagers. In 1687 in Aargau thre were more than 1000 knitters. Knitting developed in the Solothurn canton too, particularly in the small towns of Olten and Niederamt, in the neighbourhood of...

Knitting Production in the Netherlands

The neighbourhood of Tournai, thus the region bordering with France, is the most important Belgian knitting centre of southern Netherlands. Already at the end of the fifteenth century this part of the country is famous for hand knitting. The knitting machine was introduced there relatively early, already at the time when this region belonged to France, in the years 1667-1708. Tournai together with Valenciennes figures on the list of towns to which English knitting machines were exported during the period 1670-1695. In England at the beginning of the nineteenth century the southern Netherlands were considered to be an important knitting centre.11 There is data showing that around 1680 there were more than 2000 master-knitters in Tournaisis, who produced mainly stockings, part of this production being exported to Spain.12 The establishment of machine-knitting production in settlements such as P ruvelz or Leuze brought about their rapid economic development. Already by 1764 in Leuze...

Knitting in Different German Countries

The development of machine knitting in diffferent German countries was not closely linked with former centres of the textile industry. Of direct influence was the colonization of the Huguenot craftsmen who were usually establishing knitting manufactures.37 Some German countries such as Catholic Bavaria did not admit Protestant experts until the end of the eighteenth century, while Prussia most strongly supported this migration. This is why dates of the establishment of manufacture's encompass a period of more than a hundred years, while Bohemian and Austrian knitting developed more simultaneously. In Bavaria the first manufacture of cotton stockings in Reichenhall was established in 1760 and existed until 1807. Only the washing and dyeing process involved in the knitted products, mainly stockings and night-caps, was centralized. Except for the finishing, the production of the manufacture was based on the work of the inhabitants of the Reichenhall and Traunstein surroundings. In 1799...

Now Youre Knitting and Purling

I Finish working an entire row before putting down your knitting. It's too easy to stop midway and pick up your knitting later to find you can't tell the LH from the RH needle. Here's an easy way to tell The yarn is always hanging down from the last stitch you made, no matter what kind of stitch it is. So if you've finished the entire row as we recommend, when you pick up your needles again, the needle with stitches will be in your left hand. I Practice until the movements feel comfortable and relaxed. When you feel like you're getting the hang of it, try an experiment. Close your eyes or look at the ceiling while you knit let your fingers feel their way. Can you knit without looking yet Eventually you'll be able to. If you make this your goal, you can get lots of knitting done during movies Knitting know-how If you're having trouble getting into the knitting flow, change the way you carry the yarn in your hand. Or prop the knob of your RH needle under fojl your armpit or on your...

Fabrics Knitting Yarn And Needlecraft

An emporium of knitting yarns, patterns, books and accessories. The Knitting Corner in our exciting shop. We stock Rowan. Debbie Bliss, Noro, Colinette. Sublime and more. Join us for informal classes, fuli-day workshops and our monthly Knitting Club - held once a month on a Wednesday. Mai order available post-free. Open Wednesday to Sunday 10.30arn to 4.30pm, The Knitting Corner, Unit J,The Mill, Curborough Hall Farm, Watery Lane, Lichfield,Staffs WS13 8ES Inspirational Hand Knitting Supplies

Loopwheel Circular Knitting Machines

Loop Wheel Circular Knitting Machine

Loop-wheel circular knitting machines, or mailleuse in French (picture 123), incorporate a circular needle bed in which spring beard needles are arranged horizontally. Loop-wheel circular knitting machines, or mailleuse in French (picture 123), incorporate a circular needle bed in which spring beard needles are arranged horizontally. Picture 123 - A loop-wheel circular knitting machine Picture 124 - Stitch formation cycle on a loop-wheel circular knitting machine Picture 124 - Stitch formation cycle on a loop-wheel circular knitting machine

Automatic Flat Knitting Machines

Flat Knitting Manual

The structure of an automatic flat knitting machine is very similar to a manual knitting machine. The difference is that the various systems are driven by a motor. The structure of an automatic flat knitting machine is very similar to a manual knitting machine. The difference is that the various systems are driven by a motor. Picture 40 - Automatic flat knitting machine An automatic flat knitting machine incorporates the following systems (picture 40) S base Picture 40 - Automatic flat knitting machine An automatic flat knitting machine incorporates the following systems (picture 40) S base

Knitting or Knotless Netting

Dating the first knitted fabrics presents basic difficulties. Let us discard the undocumented conjectures about the knitted and not sewn robe of Christ mentioned in the Bible, or the reference to Penelope as a knitting woman. The oldest relics of the history of knitting are the socks and other small items of Coptic origin from the first centuries A. D. Nevertheless, D. K. Burnham has established on the basis of technological analysis that the collection of Coptic relics kept in the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto was produced by the knotless netting technique.1 Even earlier, M. Hald, while analysing Danish textile fabrics from the Bronze Age up to the early Middle Ages, established that these were produced by the same technique, although previously they were considered to be knitted items. She describes the knotless netting technique as a king of sewing based on loops or meshes which can be combined in various way and presents about ten different solutions based on analysis of some...

Hand Knitting Technique

We are only interested in the production technique of articles on two to five needles. The knotless netting technique had already been dealt with in Chapter II. Neither shall we concern ourselves with crocheting with its vertical or horizontal arrangement of stitches usually used for articles having a looser and more decorative structure. The knitting technique always adopted a vertical arrangement of stitches. I. Emery describes it as a kind of vertical interlooping.4 Many dictionaries and handbooks not only have not captured the difference between knitting and crocheting, but also between flat knitwear, produced on two needles, and the possibilities of fashioning the knitwear by executing it in a circle by means of a larger number of needles.5 However, the necessity of using needles of a thickness close to that of the yarn has been emphasized. One of the major preparatory activities was the rewinding of the yarn into easily unwinding balls. Such balls of yarn have been often shown...

Knitting Domino Squares

Knitting Counters Chain Style

This article, however, deals with the au courant phase of mitered knitting that is often referred to as modular or domino knitting. While there are many shapes in this form of mitered knitting, one favorite is the square. The Rainbow Blanket on page 36 and the Mitered Afghan and Pillows on pages 56-57 all use this technique. I'll use the square as a basic example because its simple to make, easy to use when designing, and very effective. Garter stitch is the most common mitered knitting stitch, but you also can use stockinette stitch, lace, slip stitches, or a combination of all, as well as multiple colors, and mixtures of different yarns there are many choices to consider once you master the basics. As in all knitting, gauge will determine the size. To show you what I mean, Swatch A and Swatch B, right, both use a 35-stitch base and have the same number of rows. However, you'll notice that Swatch B is considerably larger. That's because the yarn is thicker and I used larger needles,...

Classification of Warp Knitting Machines

Raschelmachine

Warp knitting machines can be divided into flat warp knitting machines and Raschel machines. They can have a single or a double needle-bed. Flat warp knitting machines are equipped with spring beard needles or compound needles, while Raschel machines incorporate latch needles or compound needles. The sinkers of flat warp knitting machines feature a nose, a throat and a breast, and pull the fabric perpendicularly to the needle direction. Picture 130 - Pulling direction of the fabric on a Raschel machine (left) and on a flat warp knitting machine (right) Picture 130 - Pulling direction of the fabric on a Raschel machine (left) and on a flat warp knitting machine (right)

Automatic toe closing on the knitting machine

Many novel methods have been devised for closing toes during the knitting operation. Generally, they have been restricted to single-cylinder sock machines, in coarser gauges, and not double-cylinder sock machines or seamless stocking and tights machines. They have achieved only limited success against conventional toe closing during post-knitting operations where automated seaming and handling techniques have considerably reduced labour content, time, and costs involved. The main disadvantages of toe closing on the knitting machine have been one or more of the following the necessity for a complex adaptation of the knitting machine and its knitting sequence with high capital costs reduced production speeds lower patterning potential poor comfort unsatisfactory wearing properties and unconventional appearance. The following methods have been devised to overcome some of these disadvantages 1 The rosette toe. Two types of toe that achieved some success in the late 1960s, were the Scott...

Basic Structure of a Largediameter Circular Knitting Machine

Circular knitting machines include a number of fundamental elements, based on similar - The machine base. The most recent trend among circular machine manufacturers is to build knitting machines with a solid yet smaller base and an architecture that facilitates access to the machine components for routine operations to be carried out during setting up procedures and production - The core of the machine, which includes the needle-bed area and all the systems operating during the knitting process. The feed systems are placed along the circumference of the circular needle-bed. Circular knitting machines can be divided into two basic models in the first one the needle-beds rotate and the cam frame stands still, while in the other one the needle-beds stand still and the cam frame revolves. Picture 75 - Overall view of a circular knitting machine Picture 75 - Overall view of a circular knitting machine

The Technical Development of the Knitting Machine in the Eighteenth Century

The variations in fashion within the growing demand for knitted clothing had a decisive effect on the evolution of the prototype of the simple knitting machine built by Lee. This machine could only execute the stocking stitch the fashioning of products was limited, and any more complicated forms of clothing had to be stitched together by hand. These difficulties were taken into account by various redesigners. Some of them aimed at small improvements in the construction of the machine itself and at making it function more efficient. This type of redesign was undertaken primarly in the largest machine knitting centres, in which the machines themselves were also being produced. References are made, for example, to many small improvements introduced by knitting- machine constructors in Languedoc. However, only further archival research into this powerful centre of the eighteenth century French knitting production will enable the type of technical improvements to be determined. Other...

Practicing onehanded Fair Isle knitting

Fair Isle Knitting One Handed

To practice one-handed Fair Isle knitting, choose two colors of yarn MC and CC. With the MC, cast on 21 stitches and use the charted design in Figure 13-1. You can repeat the two colors throughout, or reverse or change them after every four rows. It's worth trying out the chart both ways to see how a simple color sequence change can completely alter the effect of an easy two-color pattern. Here are a few tips to help steer you toward successful Fair Isle knitting

Bohemian Austrian and Hungarian Knitting

Following the chronological order of the introduction of the knitting machine, we shall discuss collectively the group of countries in central Europe which during this period were a single state organism under Hapsburg rule. In the first place we must mention Bohemia which most rapidly became an important centre of machine knitting. Already at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth century the cheapest and most primitive knitting machine had gained popularity being organised in the putting-out system of production. Needles, blades and hold-fast fittings were made of metal, while both the entire casing of the working part and the base, was of wood.17 No specimen of this cheap wooden machine has survived however, there are numerous data on the use of these machines, for example in Krusnohori. They were called Valcovy stavek and mentions of them appear up to the early eighteenth century. On this primitive type of knitting machine it was possible to quickly make thick...

Hints And Tips For Better Knitting

The most important element in knitting is the tension, for this governs the size of the finished garment. Knit a sample square, using the needles stated, if it is larger of smaller, adjust your needle size before you begin to make the garment. The importance of getting the correct tension cannot be stressed too often. Knitting needles should be smooth with slightly blunted tips to avoid splitting the wool or yarn. Never put work away with a row half done, this can cause a stretched stitch when starting again Before making up. Block and press each piece of work thus Press the piece of knitting which has been completed on the iron-sheet (right side down). Pin this down at the widest point (armholes for cardigans and jumpers), stretch the garment just above the ribbing and pin to match. Place pins all round outside edge at about 1 in or 3cm intervals and press with a hot iron and a damp cloth for wool (a warm iron and a dry cloth for Bri-Nylon). DO NOT OVERPRESS. KNITTING NEEDLES

Flat Singlebed Warp Knitting Machines and Singlebed Raschel Machines with Compound Needles

Picture 133 - Stitch formation cycle on a flat single-bed warp knitting machine equipped with compound needles Picture 133 - Stitch formation cycle on a flat single-bed warp knitting machine equipped with compound needles The different shape of sinkers, which pull the fabric in different directions, is a distinguishing feature for these two types of warp knitting machine.

Knitting in Eastern and Northern Europe

The earliest knitting production centres in eastern and northern Europe are characterized by the absence of guild organization, this means that no data is available from written sources, thus we find the difficulty in establishing dates and volume of production. This concerns in particular the Russian knitting. The first mention of a knitting worker dates from 1576-1580 and comes from a Russian Orthodox convent. The reference to knitted woollen stocking appears in the accounts of an Orthodox convent in 1573-1574. Among the earliest pieces of knitting from this period, mention should be made of the discoveries from the excavations on the island of Fadeev in the eastern part of the Siberian Sea. These date from the end of the sixteenth century or the beginning of the seventeenth, and are mostly collected in the Arctic Museum in Leningrad. They prove that the habitat of this island was typically Russian. L. I. Jakunina has studied the remains of garments and footwear but has not...

Knitting in Central Europe

The history of hand knitting in Germanic countries should start from Austria, as it is situated close to Italy, from where knowledge of the production of patterned knitted carpets or of larger garments was to come. It was in this mountainous country with its extensive sheep rearing that knitting based on wool blossomed. In the vicinity of Salzburg and in the Tyrol, as well as in Styria, there was, by the end of the fifteenth and in the sixteenth century, a rather wide diffusion of woollen trousers, leggings, shirts, caps and gloves, and later stockings and socks.43 At the same time, there exists no information about the existence of guild organizations before the beginning of the seventeenth century. Nevertheless, the high incidence of different types of woollen garments indicates that already in the sixteenth century knitting is not only a domestic craft but that some of this production was carried out by craftsmen, who belonged to joint guilds. The oldest guild statute of the...

Fleece Knitting Machines

The fleece fabric is similar to jersey and is obtained by inserting one or more additional yarns which do not form the stitch but only a sort of binding on the ground pattern. Single-bed circular knitting machines for fleece fabrics are equipped with a special yarn feed system which must feed the additional yarn into the special fleece feed systems before the formation of the ground stitches. The other feed systems operate as usual and form the ground fabric. STANDARD FLEECE KNITTING MACHINES Require two feed system types for finer and high-twisted ground yarn coarser and low-twisted fleece yarn THREE YARN FLEECE KNITTING MACHINES Require three feed system types for ground yarn fleece yarn During the following step, all the needles rise to their looping position when they start lowering, the thread guide feeds the ground yarn. The knitting cycle is completed once the needles have reached their lowest position, and the previous stitches and the fleece yarn have been knocked over.

Italian Spanish and Swiss Knitting

The diffusion of the knitting machine took a different form in France and England than in other European countries. In England, owing to the weak guild system, hand-knitters did not put up organized opposition against the 'introduction of the machine, and later, from the second half of the sevente-'enth century, the powerful organization of Framework Knitters defended the interests of this group of producers, machine knitting in France initially enjoyed strong state support nevertheless this production was concentrated in regions away from hand-knitting centres. The training of apprentices and journeymen required the subsequent formation of guilds, whose norms were greatly surpassed by the dimensions of manufacture production. In other European countries the introduction of knitting machines was usually connected with the formation of centralized manufactures and pointed to a stronger development of diverse textile branches. The knitting mac ne was a costly nd complicated tool,...

Machine knitting on the lands of the former Polish Republic and in Silesia and west Pomerania

The possibility of the development of machine knitting on Polish soil varied according to these areas differing national affiliations. Thus, west Pomerania enjoyed Prussian state support for the establishment of manufactures, while Silesia already had exceptionally powerful guild knitting. On the lands of the former Polish Republic knitting manufactures were being established in complexes of lordly enterprises, and at the end of the eighteenth century similar burghers' establishments also begann to arise. There is reasonable evidence suggesting that the knitting machine appeared in Gdansk already around 1620. Namely the Gdansk knitters' statute required the execution of 7 pairs of socks or 7 pairs of ladies' stockings per day, which would have been a very high norm even for the first English knitting machine.67 In the absence of data on the development of this production, it would in any event have been a sporadic case of use of a machine imported from England or, perhaps, Holland....

Integral garment knitting

An integral garment is one whose various parts have been knitted and knit-assembled by the knitting machine. It thus requires minimal make-up attention on leaving the knitting machine. Integral garment knitting lowers make-up costs (including cutting), shortens throughput times, reduces work in progress and provides the opportunity to introduce new styling features. The knitting machines, however, are more complex and expensive and may be more restrictive in their operation and patterning scope. Shima Seiki, the Japanese V-bed machine builders, use the term WholeGarment Knitting to cover their own particular patented technique. Despite the fact that integral garments are tubular and seamless, few are produced on circular machines except for hosiery and underwear (where making-up operations such as toe closing are still required). The reason is that knitting to shape generally involves wale fashioning achieved by selective loop transfer to and from needles in the same bed - a technique...

The Whole Garment knitting technique

And seamlessly knitting a complete tubular garment on a V-bed rib machine. A new feature of this technique is the ability to knit tubular rib with a high wale density and therefore improved extensibility and appearance. WholeGarment knitting removes or reduces the need for subsequent making-up (and in some cases cutting) operations, consequently reducing the garment throughput time and work in progress. It also provides the potential for introducing novel styling features into knitwear garments. The key concept of WholeGarment knitting is the facility to knit seamless body and sleeve tubes of virtually any type of plain, rib or purl construction, plus the ability to increase or decrease the sizes of the tubes and to move or merge them together as and when required during the garment knitting sequence. The technique of knitting tubular courses of plain knit on a conventional V-bed flat machine is well understood and is used in the production of complete gloves on Shima Seiki automatic...

Knitting action of the plain straight bar frame

Knitting Motion Straight Bar Frame

Figure 17.2 shows the cross-section of the knitting head containing the following elements Fig. 17.2 Knitting head of the straight bar frame. Fig. 17.2 Knitting head of the straight bar frame. G Catch bar, extending the full width of the knitting head, having forward and Figure 17.3(a-f) shows the movement of the knitting elements to produce one course of loops Figure 17.3(a-f) shows the movement of the knitting elements to produce one course of loops Fig. 17.3 Movement of knitting elements. Thread laying (a). The carrier moves across the knitting head, laying the yarn on the noses of the sinkers and dividers and on the beard side of the needles. Sinking (b).The slurcock (one for each knitting head), travelling behind the carrier, contacts the jacks (Fig. 17.2) it is shaped so that each jack in turn pushes the sinker forwards to kink a loop around every two adjacent needles. Pressing (d) and landing (e). The needle bar descends, placing the new loops inside the hooks of the beards....

Bias And Chevron Knitting

Use increases and decreases to shape within the fabric of your knitting to create bias and chevron effects. Try bias knitting in a stranded color pattern - the motifs will seem to move to the left or right, depending on the shapings. BIAS KNITTING BIAS KNITTING CHEVRON KNITTING CHEVRON KNITTING

Dialcylinder Knitting Machines

On dial-cylinder circular knitting machines the cylinder is considered the front needle-bed while the dial is considered the rear needle-bed. Both needle-beds feature grooves guiding the needle movements. The needles used for dial-cylinder circular knitting machines are mainly latch needles some manufacturers however use compound needles. Large-diameter dial-cylinder knitting machines can be divided into different categories according to the knitted good they manufacture - circular knitting machines for rib fabrics - circular knitting machines for interlock fabrics - circular knitting machines with variable needle-bed for fabrics of variable width The dial-cylinder circular knitting machines can be built in such a way that the cams rotate together with the spool rack. In this case it is possible to modify the position of the cams at each machine cycle and at each passage in front of the machine head. Dial-cylinder circular knitting machines can also be built with the cams and the...

Knitting abbreviations

The following are the knitting abbrevations used in this book, plus some extra commonly used ones. Special abbreviations are always given within the pattern. of knitting M1 make one stitch by picking up horizontal loop before next stitch and knitting into back of it M1P make one stitch by picking up

Is Knitting Losing Popularity

As far as the catwalk is concerned, knitting is back in fashion. Over the past few decades, knitting changed from being utilitarian to fashionable, before losing popularity at the end of the last century. Now, however there is a newfound interest in this versatile craft, and knitwear is once more a favorite of clothes designers. During the 1960s, knitting was very fashionable and was an essential skill for young women, and some men, if they wanted to keep up with the fashion trends. Hand-knitted striped tank tops, leg warmers, socks with separate toes, and mufflers with matching gloves were highly fashionable, and being able to make these things oneself gave great kudos to the wearer Crafts such as sewing, embroidery, knitting, and cooking were still taught in schools until the late 1970s, as well as being passed down from generation to generation, mostly by way of mother to daughter The decision to drop such practical subjects from the school curriculum resulted in a decline of these...

Circular Knitting Machines Introduction

All over the world, the majority of knit fabrics are manufactured on circular knitting machines. The high performance level of these machines, the different materials and the range of yarn counts that they are able to process, the wide variety of designs and stitches are some of the reasons which have granted circular machines the market leadership in the knitting sector. The variety of knit fabrics that can be manufactured with these machines can meet the needs of a very large end user market from the traditional outwear and underwear sectors to hosiery, household and car interiors, without forgetting technical textile applications.

Terry Knitting Machines

Knitted Terry Stitch Formation

For the manufacturing of terry cloth, it is necessary to use single-bed circular knitting machines equipped with special sinkers featuring a longer nose than standard sinkers and special thread guides which feed simultaneously two yarns, one called ground yarn and the other one called face yarn, into the same needle. STEP A the sinkers reach their maximum forward position towards the centre of the cylinder and are momentarily stopped. During this step, they must retain the previous loop on the needle stem and allow the needle to rise, reach the knitting position, and prepare to receive the two yarns fed by the yarn guide. In this starting position the face yarn is on the sinker nib and the interloop is in the throat. Many manufacturers offer terry knitting machines with a 40-inch bed diameter and up to 60 feed systems to carry out both terry and plating, with gauge range from E 14 to E 28.

Flat Singlebed Warp Knitting Machines with Spring Beard Needles

Stitch Formation Cycle Knitting

The components operating during the stitch formation cycle on flat single-bed warp knitting machines with spring beard needles are the following the needles - the guide bars - the sinkers - the presser. Picture 131 - Stitch formation cycle on a flat single-bed warp knitting machine equipped with spring beard needles Picture 131 - Stitch formation cycle on a flat single-bed warp knitting machine equipped with spring beard needles

Knitting in the round using a set of four needles

Working in the round is used for tubular, or seamless knitting. Stitches are divided evenly over three needles, with an extra needle used to knit the stitches. The needles form a triangle by drawing up the last cast-on stitch to meet the first cast-on. ICare should be taken to make sure that the cast-on edge is not twisted.) The fourth needle is used to knit the stitches from the first needle, and then as each needle becomes free, it is used to work the stitches from the next needle. When changing over from one needle to another, pull the yarn firmly to prevent a ladder forming. Keep track of the beginning of the round with a marker. Although blanket stitch is usually used on the edge of a piece of knitting, the principle is the same for the eyelet detail on the Daisy Cardigan (see page 120). Secure the yarn to the edge of the fabric. After deciding on the height of the stitches you require and also the distance apart, insert the needle from front to back taking these requirements...

The evolution of hand knitting

The term knitting describes the technique of constructing textile structures by forming a continuous length of yarn into columns of vertically intermeshed loops. It relies heavily on the availability of fine, strong, uniformly spun yarn. The term 'knitting' dates from the mid-sixteenth century, earlier words such as the Saxon 'cnyttan' and the Sanskrit 'nahyat' being less precise, indicating that knitting probably evolved from sources such as the experience gained by knotting and Coptic knitting. In Coptic knitting or Nalbinding, an upside-down looped structure is produced using a single-eyed needle (like a sewing needle) containing a short length of yarn. Normally, crossed loops are formed. The technique can achieve fashioning, closing, circular knitting and stitch patterning. Leicester's Jewry Wall Museum possesses a sock of cross stitch construction from the Antinoe site in Roman Egypt dating from the fifth century AD 1 .

The compoundneedle warp knitting machine

Compound Needle Knitting

Now, the compound needle is employed in most high-speed warp knitting machines, excluding double needle bar raschels. Its short, simple action enables 3300 cpm to be achieved without the problems of metal fatigue and loop distortion associated with latch and bearded needles. 24.4.1 The knitting action of the compound needle warp knitting machine Figure 24.7 illustrates the knitting action of a compound needle warp knitting machine Fig. 24.7 Knitting action of a compound needle tricot machine. Fig. 24.7 Knitting action of a compound needle tricot machine.

Imparting shape during knitting

Needle Bed

In addition to facilities for garment-length sequence knitting, weft knitting provides unique opportunities for width-wise shaping during knitting, with the sequence being initiated and co-ordinated from the same central control mechanism. The three methods of width shaping are 1 varying the number of needles in action in the knitting width, 2 changing the knitting construction, and Wale fashioning is the normal manner of shaping (symmetrically or asymmetrically) on straight bar frames (Figures 16.7 and 16.8). It involves the transfer of loops from one needle to another within the same needle bed, either transferring onto selvedge needles that are to start knitting (widening) or transferring from needles that are to cease knitting (narrowing).

The basic knitting action of a needle

Circular Knitting Cycle

Figure 3.1 (1-7) illustrates the basic action of a needle. Except for the manner in which the hook is closed (in this case by pressing the beard), the knitting action is similar for all needles. The arrows indicate the relative movement of the loops along the needles. (Whether the needle moves through the loops or the loops are moved over the needle by some other elements depends upon the machine design.) 7 The old loop now hangs from the feet of the fully formed new loop and the knitting cycle starts again. Fig. 3.1 Basic knitting action of a needle. Fig. 3.1 Basic knitting action of a needle.

Needle bounce and highspeed knitting

On circular knitting machines, higher productivity involves faster needle movements as a result of an increase in the number of knitting feeds and of machine rotational speeds. On fabric machines, the machine revolutions per minute have almost doubled and the number of feeders have increased twelve-fold over the past 25 years, so that as many as 4000 courses per minute can be knitted on some plain machines, whilst on some high-speed seamless hose machines the tangential speed of the needles can be more than 5 metres per second. 'Needle bounce' is a major problem in high speed knitting. This is caused by the needle butt being suddenly checked by the impact of hitting the upper surface of the up-throw cam after it has accelerated away from the lowest point of the stitch cam. At this moment, inertia at the needle head may cause it to vibrate so violently that it may fracture also the up-throw cam becomes pitted in this section. Needles passing though in the miss section are particularly...

Fullfashioned Knitting Machines

The full-fashioned knitting machine in picture 121 features from 4 to 12 sections. This machine has a single needle-bed provided with spring beard needles. Picture 121- Full-fashioned knitting machine Picture 121- Full-fashioned knitting machine Picture 122 - Stitch formation cycle on a full-fashioned knitting machine Picture 122 - Stitch formation cycle on a full-fashioned knitting machine

Knitting technology The fashioning action

(f) Once the needles have slid up into the grooves of the points to receive the loops, the points rise to their high inoperative position. The needle bar rises, causing the transferred loops to slip down onto the stems and the cam-shaft is shogged back to the left again so that knitting can restart.

Coloured stitch designs in weft knitting

Ornamentation for design purposes may be introduced at the fibre, yarn, or dyeing and finishing stage, as well as at the knitting stage. Apart from different colours, it may take the form of sculptured or surface interest. In fibre form it may include a variation of fibre diameter, length, cross-section, dye uptake, shrinkage, or elastic properties. In yarn form it can include fancy twist and novelty yarns, as well as the combined use of yarns produced by different spinning or texturing processes. The dyeing process, which provides the possibility of differential and cross-dyeing of fabrics composed of more than one type of fibre, may occur at any point in manufacturing from fibre to finished article 2 . The knitting of stitch designs always involves a loss of productivity compared with the knitting of plain, non-patterned structures. Machine speeds are lower, less feeds can generally be accommodated, efficiency is less, design changes are time-consuming and dependent upon technique...

Glossary of Knitting Terms

Aran - a traditional style of patterned textured knitting that originated from the Aran Islands, which are off the coast of Ireland. Argyle - a geometric pattern with large diamond shapes in two or three colours overlaid with a pattern of diagonal lines in a contrasting colour. Backstitch - a stitch used to join two pieces of fabric together, with even, small stitches forming a straight, continuous line on one side and longer, overlapping stitches on the reverse, see page 62. Ball band - the paper band round a ball or hank of yarn when it is purchased, which gives the brand name, ply and fibre content of the yarn, the shade and dye lot, recommended gauge, needle sizes and washing instructions. Binding off - the term used in the US for casting off. Blanket Stitch - a type of embroidery stitch that is normally used to finish off a raw edge. Blocking - the pinning out of each piece of knitting to the correct shape and dimensions before pressing, see page 58. Casting off - the term used...

Beaded Knitting Prestrung Knitted through Stitches

One can actually knii a prestrung bead through the actual stitch. After inserting the needle into the stitch, as you wrap rhe yarn around the needle, snuggle ihe bead up to the junction between the two needles, then knit both rhe yarn and bead through rhc stitch. 1 have found that using the left index finger (knitting) or rhe left thumb (purling) helps to push the bead through when you're working the stitch. The bead now lies on a diagonal like needlepoint stitches, or rhc earth on its axis. Repeat this beading process on each and every stitch and you have the basis of true Bead Knitting.

The compatibility of electronic signals and knitting data

This information can just as conveniently be translated into knitting states such as KNIT or TUCK, TUCK or MISS. The binary digits can be arranged in the form of a programme where they can be encoded and converted into symbols to compose, for example, a knitting design or a machine programme.

Knitting outside Europe

The hand knitting in some Asiatic and north African countries will be mentioned in Chapter X concerning the peasant's knitting. The little information known deals only with the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The hand knitting was known in the United States of America. Stockings and other parts of knitted garments were very useful in the rude living conditions of the first settlers of North America, but only rural Pennsylvania clothing has been studied more systematically, by E. J. Gehret. She wrote Stockings worn during the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century were created in one of three ways hand knit, loom made, and fabric sewn In former times mothers and daughters were always busy at their knitting. They were proud to knit their own wear well They also made coarser ones stockings for the boys and servants made of thread and woollen yarn. If in large families they could not do it all, they hired a woman to help knit them. The women knitted both linen and woollen...

The evolution of other weft knitting machines

These developments led to attempts to prevent the export of the improved British frames and to the growth of framework knitting in the second half of the seventeenth century, but a hundred years passed before further significant developments occurred. Strutt's Derby Rib attachment dates from 1759 (see Section 7.3). In 1769 the frame was successfully adapted to rotary drive (Section 17.1). It was not until the second half of the nineteenth century that vertical needle bars began to be employed or circular frames became viable (Section 8.4.3), despite earlier circular-machine patents ranging from Decroix's in 1798 to Brunel's in 1816.

Knitting and purling Continentalstyle

How do you decide which method to use If you know a knitter who's willing to be your knitting mentor (and we've never met a fellow knitter who didn't love to show off his or her techniques), do what that person does. If you plan to knit color patterns, know that being able to knit with one color in the right hand and the other color in the left hand makes things quicker and easier. Both methods, Continental and English, give you the same result loops pulled through loops to make knitted fabric. The most important things are that knitting feels comfortable to you and your stitches look even. When you knit Continental, you don't wrap the yarn as you do in English knitting (refer to the earlier section, Knitting know-how). Instead you have to pick up the yarn and pull it through the old stitch. To do that, you execute a little swivel movement with your RH needle. Envision the needle as a chopstick with a cup on the end that you scoop into the stitch in order to pull up the yarn. (If...

Patterns and charts Shaping Circular knitting Other stitch techniques Constructing a sock Finishing

The recent resurgence in the popularity of knitting has seen lots of demand for patterns for bags, hats and scarves as knitters try to find the next small project to keep their fingers busy. Socks are often regarded as too difficult to tackle, but the fact that they are small, portable items that can be as practical or as decorative as you wish means that they are ideal projects to knit. This book aims to dispel the myth that sock knitting is difficult by taking you through the projects step-by-step. Along the way, projects like the butterfly and bumble boots (project 4) and felted Sunday boots (project 5) will make clothing the feet of you, your family and friends lots of fun. Once you have completed your first project, you will wonder why you haven't tried sock knitting before - you'll be hooked to sock yarns. all the basic knitting completely new to knitting, practise

Flat Knitting Machines

Manual Flat Knitting Machine

The flat knitting machine is a two-bed machine (picture 20). The most important mechanical features of a flat knitting machine are Picture 20 - Flat knitting machine Picture 20 - Flat knitting machine 2. Both are arranged on a horizontal plane (at 180 ) with the grooves, which are positioned opposite to each other. Double hook needles slide inside the grooves these needles are moved by special sliders, which can transfer the stitches to the front bed - or to the rear bed for links-links or purl knitting processes - according to the type of patterns. The Manual Flat Knitting Machine The manual flat knitting machine is made up by a frame carrying the base this structure supports all the needle beds and motions necessary for the knitting process (picture 21). Picture 21- Manual flat knitting machine In the rear side of the machine (picture 22) there is a spool rack for storing the yarn spools. Picture 21- Manual flat knitting machine In the rear side of the machine (picture 22) there is...

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