Automatic toe closing on the knitting machine

Many novel methods have been devised for closing toes during the knitting operation. Generally, they have been restricted to single-cylinder sock machines, in coarser gauges, and not double-cylinder sock machines or seamless stocking and tights machines. They have achieved only limited success against conventional toe closing during post-knitting operations where automated seaming and handling techniques have considerably reduced labour content, time, and costs involved. The main disadvantages...

The RTR garmentlength machine

Interlock Knitting Stitch

This fully-automatic garment-length rib machine was introduced in 1938 by Wildt Mellor Bromley as a replacement for their RSB model of 1936, which had no facilities for rib loop transfer. Its anti-clockwise revolving cylinder and dial cam-box has cam sections of equal size whether they are for knitting feeders or rib loop transfer. A unit set in advance of the section can select the cylinder needles for the knitting or transfer action. The original RTR has six cam sections, four for knitting 2...

Typical structures knitted on flat machines

Sweater Full Cardigan Racked

Cardigan stitches are two-course repeat tuck rib knitwear structures, widely used in the body sections of heavy-weight stitch-shaped sweaters. The tuck stitches cause the rib wales to gape apart so that the body width spreads outwards to a greater extent than the rib border. The tuck loops increase the fabric thickness and make it heavier in weight and bulkier in handle, although the rate of production in rows of loops will be less than for normal 1 x 1 or 2 x 2 rib. The greater the proportion...

Integral garment knitting

An integral garment is one whose various parts have been knitted and knit-assembled by the knitting machine. It thus requires minimal make-up attention on leaving the knitting machine. Integral garment knitting lowers make-up costs including cutting , shortens throughput times, reduces work in progress and provides the opportunity to introduce new styling features. The knitting machines, however, are more complex and expensive and may be more restrictive in their operation and patterning scope....

Individual stitch selection

Knit Tuck Float

Individual stitch selection is the most versatile and widely-employed method of knitting designs in colour, or different types of stitches in self-colour. It is based on the relative positioning of an element during a knitting cycle determining which stitch, from a choice of two or more, is produced in its corresponding wale at a particular feeder course of a machine revolution or traverse. Latch needle weft knitting machines are especially suitable because their individually tricked and butted...

The Whole Garment knitting technique

Shima Seiki launched their patented WholeGarment technique at ITMA'95 with two different V-bed models, each having unique features. These involve integrally and seamlessly knitting a complete tubular garment on a V-bed rib machine. A new feature of this technique is the ability to knit tubular rib with a high wale density and therefore improved extensibility and appearance. WholeGarment knitting removes or reduces the need for subsequent making-up and in some cases cutting operations,...

Calculate The Fashioning Sequence For A Kintted Panel

Integral Knitted Garments

Fig. 16.9 Integrally shaped rib garment pieces. The machine has an additional bed containing the transfer points Shima Seiki . 2 Convert the width dimensions at the start of each section to total numbers of needles by multiplying the width measurement by wpi. Thus, 16 x 16 256 18 x 16 288 8 x 16 128 needles. 3 Calculate the total number of needles increased or decreased from one section to another by taking one total from the next. 4 Divide the totals obtained by 2 in order to obtain the...

The four main types of transfer stitches

Loop Transfer Bed Knitting Machine

There are four main types of transfer stitches 1 Plain needle loop transfer stitches, produced by transference of a loop from one needle to another in the same bed. 2 Fancy lacing stitches, produced by modification of the plain loop stitch. 3 Rib loop transfer stitches, produced by transferring a loop from one needle bed to the other. 4 Sinker loop transfer stitches Needle loop transfer on plain fabric is most commonly achieved on straight bar frames using specially-shaped, rackably-controlled...

The Mayer Jacquardtronic multibar lace raschels

Machine Textronic

The traditional mechanical verdol jacquard control, previously described, is slow, cumbersome and time-consuming when changing designs. On the latest electronic machines, the jacquard head has been replaced by a computer control that is simply linked by a cable to the combined selection element and jacquard guide, which are one unit. There are no jacquard harness cords for lifting and guide displacement which would restrict the use of the conventional guide bar swinging movement. At first, Karl...

Mecmor Variatex machines

The Mecmor Variatex machines are a range of circular cylinder and dial, garment-length machines that knit garment-lengths in open-width on 300 degrees of the machine's circumference. The revolving cam-box model '180' has a diameter of 28 inches, providing a maximum knitting width of 70 inches 180 cm . The remainder of the machine's periphery consists of a command sector containing a multi-track Mylar film loop with insertable plastic studs and a master control drum to control each knitting or...

The Stoll CAD pattern preparation system

Technical Data Stoll

The Stoll SIRIX is a complete design, patterning and programming system originally specially developed from Apple II PC software. It caters for every application in V-bed flat knitting. It uses icons and windows to graphically support the generation and development of knitting programmes for Stoll CMS electronic flat machines. SIRIX has a hierarchy of files holding folders. These can be opened by a double click of the mouse on an icon. It simplifies pattern drafting and speeds-up the processes...

Timing and control of mechanical changes on circular hosiery machines

Air Brake Compressor Cut Away Picture

The application of microprocessor controls has removed the need for mechanical timing chains and control drums on the latest electronically-controlled hosiery machines. The machine's microprocessor memory can accommodate a range of sizes and styles that can be quickly recalled when a change is required. On mechanically-controlled machines, the changes are timed by the links of a timing chain that also control the racking of a control shaft to which are attached the control cam-drums and wheels...

The direction of lapping at successive courses

Open Pillar Stitch

When using either open or closed laps there are three possible arrangements of lapping at successive courses, which may be used alone or in combination 1 The pillar stitch. In the pillar or chain stitch, the same guide always overlaps the same needle. This lapping movement will produce chains of loops in uncon nected wales, which must be connected together by the underlaps of a second guide bar. Generally, pillar stitches are made by front guide bars, either to produce vertical stripe effects...

The bipartite compound needle

Knitting Slide Needle

Compound needles Fig. 3.5 consist of two separately-controlled parts - the open hook and the sliding closing element tongue, latch, piston, plunger . The two parts rise and fall as a single unit but, at the top of the rise, the hook moves faster to open the hook and at the start of the fall the hook descends faster to close the hook. It is easier to drive the hooks and tongues collectively from two separate bars in warp knitting than to move each hook and tongue individually, as in weft...

The compoundneedle warp knitting machine

Compound Needle Knitting

After its introduction in 1946, the two guide bar British-built FNF tricot machine with its tubular compound needles Section 3.16 became, for 10 years, the pacemaker of the industry, with its speed of 1000 courses per minute being more than twice that of contemporary bearded needle machines. It also incorporated many new features such as double eccentric element drive, positive warp let-off, light spring warp tension rails, and carefully-balanced machine parts. However, it required precise...

Structural modifications commonly used in weft and warp knitting

Practicle Movement Example

Certain techniques are possible during the knitting action that can radically change the physical appearance and properties of a knitted construction without seriously affecting the cohesive nature of the loop structure. These techniques may be broadly divided into four groups - laying-in, plating, open-work and plush pile. Although these techniques can be achieved on most knitting machines, slight modifications are often necessary and the more sophisticated versions of these techniques may...

The double needle bar raschel

Waffle Knit Diagrammatic Notation

The double needle bar raschel, as designed by Redgate, later developed into a general-purpose machine, mainly knitting shawls and scarves. At first, the needle bars were arranged back-to-back alternately, as on rib weft knitting machines, but they were soon placed exactly behind each other for convenience of guide bar swinging. Between six and eight guide bars were employed, together with various attachments such as a fall-plate, a crepeing motion which could disengage one needle bar for a...

The three classes of weft knitting machines

Vintage Hosiery Machinery

The three main groups of weft knitting machinery may broadly be classified as either straight bar frames, flats, or circulars, according to their frame design and needle bed arrangement. Straight bar frames are a specific type of machine having a vertical bar of bearded needles whose movement is controlled by circular engineering cams attached to a revolving cam-shaft in the base of the machine. The length of the machine is divided into a number of knitting heads 'sections' or 'divisions' and...

Simple tuck and float stitch singlejersey fabrics

Lacoste Notation Knitting Structure

Figure 13.1 illustrates the notations of some simple single-jersey fabrics, whilst Fig. 13.2 illustrates a loop diagram of hopsack, a single-jersey inlaid fabric. In order to tie a lay-in yarn into the back of a single-jersey structure, selected needles are raised to tuck height to receive the lay-in yarn at a point in advance of the ground knitting feeder. The needles are then raised to clearing height prior to receiving and knitting the ground yarn. Fig. 13.2 Single jersey hopsack structure...

Weft knitted fabric relaxation and shrinkage

Changes of dimension after knitting can create major problems in garments and fabrics, especially those produced from hydrophilic fibres such as wool and cotton. Articles knitted from synthetic thermoplastic fibres such as nylon and polyester can be heat-set to a shape or to dimensions that are retained unless the setting conditions are exceeded during washing and wearing. In the case, of wool fibres, dimensional changes can be magnified by felting shrinkage. When untreated wool fibres are...

Course length and runin per rack

In weft knitting, the term 'course length' refers to the measurement of a straight length of yarn knitted by all or a fraction of the needles in the production of a particular course. It consists of the stitch length multiplied by the number of needles knitting that stitch length. It may be measured at a yarn feed during knitting or after unroving the yarn from a knitted fabric, either as a complete course length or from the counted wales between two vertical cuts in the fabric. In Fig. 6.1,...

Fabric machines and garmentlength machines

Weft knitting machines may be broadly grouped according to end product as either circular machines, knitting tubular fabric in a continuous uninterrupted length of constant width, or flat and circular machines, knitting garment-length sequences, which have a timing or counting device to initiate an additional garment-length programming ('machine control') mechanism. This co-ordinates the knitting action to produce a garment-length structural repeat sequence in a wale-wise direction. The garment...

The development of the straight bar frame

Straight Bar Frames Knitting Machine

The straight bar frame is, with a number of later improvements and developments, recognisable as a direct descendant of William Lee's hand frame. Credit for the development of the first acceptable power-driven rotary frame is given to Samuel Wise who, in 1769, replaced the foot pedals with a power-driven rotary shaft whose tappets caught against arms and levers to move the working parts. To increase productivity it was necessary to simplify the knitting action and introduce automatic mechanisms...

Nonjacquard doublejersey structures

Rib Interlock Machine Dial Cams

Most interlock variation structures have six- or eight-feeder sequences, as only alternate needles in one bed are in action in a course. Single pique or cross tuck interlock Fig. 13.3a was one of the first to be produced, by placing tuck cams in the dial at every third feeder. The tuck stitches throw the fabric out approximately 15 per cent wider than normal interlock to a satisfactory finished width of over 60 inches approximately 1.5 m for a 30-inch diameter machine. They break up the surface...

The Shima Seiki electronic selection system

Bed Knitting Machine Stitch Diagrams

Figure 19.2 illustrates the front F and back bed B cam systems of a Shima Seiki two knitting system model SEC. It is indicated that the cam carriage is traversing Fig. 19.1 Mechanical jacquard selection on a V-bed flat machine. Fig. 19.1 Mechanical jacquard selection on a V-bed flat machine. from right-to-left so that the butts of the knitting elements enter from the left, passing through four systems 1 From the left, the first system is transferring loops from the back bed to the front bed....

Imparting shape during knitting

Needle Bed

In addition to facilities for garment-length sequence knitting, weft knitting provides unique opportunities for width-wise shaping during knitting, with the sequence being initiated and co-ordinated from the same central control mechanism. The three methods of width shaping are 1 varying the number of needles in action in the knitting width, 2 changing the knitting construction, and Wale fashioning is the normal manner of shaping symmetrically or asymmetrically on straight bar frames Figures...

Electronic needle selection

Moratronic Needle Selection

Electro-magnetic needle selection is now available on many types of knitting machines this was first commercially used on circular rib jacquard machines Fig. 11.11 . The electronic impulse that energises an electromagnet is usually assisted by the field of a permanent magnet, and the minute selection movement is then magnified by mechanical means. If all the needles, or a block of needles, were to be simultaneously selected, each would require its own actuator. It is much cheaper to select the...

The Tsudakoma TFK machine

Tensioner For Yarn

The first automatic V-bed machine to operate without cam boxes, the model TFK, was demonstrated by the Tsudakoma Corporation at the 1995 ITMA exhibition. The Asahi Chemical Industry Co. supported its earlier development. The model TFK has a working width of 122cm 48 in in gauges 7,8,10 and 12, with a maximum variable speed of 1.2m sec. Individual linear electric motors drive the needles in their tricks Fig. 19.13 The computer and control system regulate the linear motors to simulate the...

The five basic overlapunderlap variations

Over Lap Knitting

All guide bar lapping movements are composed of one or more of the following lapping variations (Fig. 23.5) 1 An overlap followed by an underlap in the opposite direction (closed lap) (Fig. 23.5a). 2 An overlap followed by an underlap in the same direction (open lap) (Fig. 23.5b). 3 Only overlaps and no underlaps (open laps) (Fig. 23.5c). 4 Only underlaps and no overlaps (laying-in) (Fig. 23.5d). 5 Neither overlaps nor underlaps (miss-lapping) (Fig. 23.5e). Movements 4 and 5 require the...

A comparison of latch and compound needles

Compared with the latch needle, the compound needle is more intricate and expensive to manufacture. Each of its two parts must be separately and precisely controlled during knitting. In circular knitting, yarn feeding is very critical because, if the yarn lands on the tongue, it will not enter the open hook, whereas in latch needle knitting the closing latch will flick the yarn into the hook. It is particularly a problem when knitting multiple tucks. Adjustment of a machine setting is therefore...

The two methods of yarn feeding

Knitting Mechanism

As mentioned in Section 4.3.2, yarn feeding involves either a moving the needles past the stationary yarn feed or b moving the yarn past the stationary needle bed. When the yarn moves past the needles, the fabric will be stationary because the loops hang from the needles. This arrangement exists on all warp knitting machines, and on weft knitting machines with straight beds and circular machines with stationary cylinders and dials. On straight machines of both weft and warp type, the...

The reverse loop stitch

This is the opposite side of the stitch to the face loop-side and shows the new loop meshing away from the viewer as it passes under the head of the old loop. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the underlaps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface. The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop Figures 4.4 and 5.8 ....

Knitting action of the plain straight bar frame

Knitting Motion Straight Bar Frame

Figure 17.2 shows the cross-section of the knitting head containing the following elements A Bearded needle, having a cranked end for location in the tricked and drilled needle bar. B Sinker - only one between every other needle space - with a reinforced back and, at the front, a 'catch' to sink the yarn around the needles, and a 'neb' to separate the old and new loops until knock-over. C Divider, occupying each remaining space, usually having the same shaped front as the sinker but with an...

The Shima total design system

Since developing the Micro SDS pattern preparation system, Shima have introduced a series of systems with improved hardware and software according to industry's needs. The Shima Total Design System is a totally-integrated knit production system that allows all stages - planning, design, evaluation, production, and sales promotion -to be integrated into a smooth work-flow 1 The designer, using computer-graphic paint software and a pressure-sensitive airbrush, creates concept drawings. Scanned-in...

The evolution of hand knitting

The term knitting describes the technique of constructing textile structures by forming a continuous length of yarn into columns of vertically intermeshed loops. It relies heavily on the availability of fine, strong, uniformly spun yarn. The term 'knitting' dates from the mid-sixteenth century, earlier words such as the Saxon 'cnyttan' and the Sanskrit 'nahyat' being less precise, indicating that knitting probably evolved from sources such as the experience gained by knotting and Coptic...

Rules governing two guide bar structures

Stitches Tricot Structures

1 As the guides swing through the needles to start their next overlap, the back guide bar is first to lay its underlap on the technical back Fig. 25.2 and the front bar is the last, so its underlaps lie on top on the back of the fabric Fig. 25.3 . 2 The front bar thread is the first to strike the needle on the return swing after the overlap Fig. 25.4 and as its bar swings furthest to the front of the machine, it tends to occupy a lower position on the needle. If this position is retained it...

The contra knitting technique

Contra Knitting Technique

On certain single-jersey machines, the 'contra' 'relative' or 'shared loop' knitting technique is now employed, for example by the Mayer method Fig. 13.13 . As well as having the normal radial movement between the needles, the sinkers move vertically down, in opposition to the needles rise to clearing height, and rise as the needles descend to knock-over. This considerably reduces the extent of the needle movement. One loop is almost fully formed before the next is started. There are thus less...

The advantages of warp knitted nets

Knitted Raschel Lace Pattern Graph

Warp knitted nets have knot-free joints giving greater strength and lower weights extremely open fabric uses very little yarn fabric density is adjustable and can be adjusted to the requirements of sunlight. Fig. 30.2 Directionally-structured fibre DSF geotextile constructions The Karl Mayer Guide to Geotextiles, P R Ranilor and S Raz 1989 , Karl Mayer, Germany . Fig. 30.2 Directionally-structured fibre DSF geotextile constructions The Karl Mayer Guide to Geotextiles, P R Ranilor and S Raz 1989...

The success of raschel lace

Lace Machine

Many factors outlined in the following list have contributed to the success of warp knitting in the production of lace, curtain-net and elastic fabrics The inability of the slow, traditional lace and net machines to meet rapidly expanding demands for these types of fabrics. An availability of fine, strong, uniformly regular, continuous filament yarns ideally suitable for high-speed warp knitting, such as nylon for lace, polyester for curtaining, and elastomeric yarns for elastic laces. The...

The potential of knitting technology

The unique loop structure of knitting provides opportunities for using a minimum number of yarns. easy flow of yarn from one loop to another under tension. loop distortion when under tension. knitting single face, double face, open-work and surface interest structures. increasing or decreasing the number of loops in width or depth. knitting to shape either fabric pieces or separate articles. knitting from a selection of yarns. engineering extensibility or stability. introducing (by inlay) yarns...