Basic principles

A warp knitted fabric with a regular surface and uniform appearance is generally produced when all of the following conditions exist:

  • Each bar is fully-threaded, with every guide in the same bar carrying a similar yarn.
  • Each bar makes a regular lapping movement of similar extent at each course.
  • When weft is inserted it occurs with a similar yarn at regular intervals.
  • Warp is supplied to each bar at a constant tension and uniform rate from course to course.

Carefully arranged variation of one or more of the above conditions enables patterns, surface interest, relief and open-work structures to be knitted, as the guide lines below indicate:

  • Variation in the threading of one or more guide bars (guides threaded with different types of yarn or empty guides without yarn) will alter the appearance of the particular wales lapped by these guides. The effect will run the length of the fabric.
  • Variation in the extent of underlaps produced by a guide bar will affect the appearance of those courses where the variation occurs and if the guide bar is fully-threaded the effect will run across the width of the fabric. Similar effects are obtained using weft insertion with different types of yarn, or by varying the frequency of the insertion.
  • The appearance of the fabric may also be changed at certain courses by varying the rate of warp supply or selectively tensioning the warp threads and thus influencing the length of yarn in the underlaps.
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