Contents

List of figures xv

Preface xxii

Acknowledgements xxiv

1 An introduction to textile technology 1

  1. 1 The evolution of textiles 1
  2. 2 Textile fabrics 1
  3. 3 Textile yarns and fibres 3
  4. 4 Yarn count numbering systems 4
  5. 5 Conversion formulae 5

2 From hand knitting to hand frame knitting 7

  1. 1 The evolution of hand knitting 7
  2. 2 The spread of knowledge of hand pin knitting 7
  3. 3 The principles of hand knitting using two pins 8
  4. 4 The invention of the stocking hand frame 9
  5. 5 The bearded needle 10
  6. 6 The principles of frame knitting 10
  7. 7 The evolution of other weft knitting machines 12
  8. 8 The development of warp knitting 12
  9. 9 The potential of knitting technology 13
  10. 10 Meeting the challenge of new markets 14

3 General terms and principles of knitting technology 16

  1. 1 Machine knitting 16
  2. 2 The knitted loop structure 16
  3. 3 A course 16
  4. 4 A wale 17
  5. 5 Stitch density 17
  6. 6 Technically upright 18
  7. 7 Design appearance requirements 18
  8. 8 The main features of the knitting machine 18
  9. 9 The needle 19
  10. 10 Fabric draw-off 19
  11. 11 The front of rectilinear needle bar machines 19
  12. 12 The basic knitting action of a needle 20
  13. 13 The bearded needle 20
  14. 14 The latch needle 22
  15. 15 Friction and frictionless needles 26
  16. 16 The bi-partite compound needle 26
  17. 17 A comparison of latch and compound needles 27
  18. 18 Machine gauge 29

4 Basic mechanical principles of knitting technology 31

  1. 1 The sinker 31
  2. 2 The jack 33
  3. 3 Cams 33
  4. 4 The two methods of yarn feeding 36
  5. 5 The three methods of forming yarn into needle loops 37

5 Elements of knitted loop structure 38

  1. 1 The needle loop 38
  2. 2 The sinker loop 39
  3. 3 Warp knitted laps 39
  4. 4 The overlap 40
  5. 5 The underlap 40
  6. 6 The closed lap 41
  7. 7 The open lap 41
  8. 8 Wrapping 42
  9. 9 The knitted stitch 42
  10. 10 The intermeshing points of a needle loop 43
  11. 11 The face loop stitch 43
  12. 12 The reverse loop stitch 43
  13. 13 Single-faced structures 44
  14. 14 Double-faced structures 44
  15. 15 A balanced structure 45
  16. 16 Face and reverse stitches in the same wale 45
  17. 17 Selvedged fabric 45
  18. 18 Cut edge fabric 45
  19. 19 Tubular fabric 45
  20. 20 Upright loop structures 46
  21. 21 Knitting notations 46

6 Comparison of weft and warp knitting 48

  1. 1 Yarn feeding and loop formation 48
  2. 2 The two industries 49
  3. 3 Productivity 52
  4. 4 Machine design 52
  5. 5 Comparison of patterning and fabric structures 52
  6. 6 Course length and run-in per rack 53
  7. 7 Fabric quality 54
  8. 8 Structural modifications commonly used in weft and warp knitting 54

7 The four primary base weft knitted structures 60

  1. 1 Introduction 60
  2. 2 Plain structure 61
  3. 3 Rib structure 67
  4. 4 Interlock structure 73
  5. 5 Purl structure 76

8 The various types of weft knitting machines 82

  1. 1 Fabric machines and garment-length machines 82
  2. 2 Knitting welts and rib borders 83
  3. 3 Integral knitting 84
  4. 4 The three classes of weft knitting machines 85

9 Stitches produced by varying the sequence of the needle loop intermeshing 90

  1. 1 Knitted stitches 90
  2. 2 The held loop 90
  3. 3 The drop or press-off stitch 91
  4. 4 The float stitch 92
  5. 5 Float plating 93
  6. 6 The tuck stitch 94

10 Coloured stitch designs in weft knitting 100

  1. 1 Horizontal striping 101
  2. 2 Intarsia 102
  3. 3 Plating 104
  4. 4 Individual stitch selection 105
  5. 5 Jacquard design areas 110
  6. 6 Worked example 110

11 Pattern and selection devices 115

  1. 1 Weft knitted patterns 115
  2. 2 Different lengths of butt 115
  3. 3 Different butt positions 117
  4. 4 Multi-step butt set-outs 118
  5. 5 Selection devices 118
  6. 6 Element selection 118
  7. 7 Selection area arrangement 120
  8. 8 Full jacquard mechanical needle selection 123
  9. 9 Multi-step geometric needle selection 123
  10. 10 Needle selection by disc 125
  11. 11 The pattern wheel 126
  12. 12 Pattern wheel design areas 128
  13. 13 Electronic needle selection 130

12 Electronics in knitting 134

  1. 1 The disadvantages of mechanical control 134
  2. 2 The disadvantages of mechanical programming 134
  3. 3 The advantages of electronic control and programming 134
  4. 4 The compatibility of electronic signals and knitting data 135
  5. 5 Microprocessors and computers 136
  6. 6 The computerised knitting machine 136
  7. 7 Computer graphics and pattern preparation 137
  8. 8 The Stoll CAD pattern preparation system 140
  9. 9 The Shima total design system 144

13 Circular fabric knitting 145

  1. 1 Weft knitted fabric production 145
  2. 2 Single- and double-jersey compared 146
  3. 3 Simple tuck and float stitch single-jersey fabrics 146
  4. 4 The history of double-jersey 147
  5. 5 Types of double-jersey structure 148
  6. 6 Non-jacquard double-jersey structures 148
  7. 7 Double jersey inlay 153
  8. 8 The modern circular fabric knitting machine 155
  9. 9 Versatility and quick response 157
  10. 10 The 'contra' knitting technique 158
  11. 11 Circular-machine production calculations 159

14 Speciality fabrics and machines 161

  1. 1 The range of speciality fabrics 161
  2. 2 The production of fleecy on sinker-top machines 162
  3. 3 Fleecy interlock 164
  4. 4 Plush 164
  5. 5 The bearded needle sinkerwheel machine 165
  6. 6 Sinker plush knitted on single-jersey latch needle machines ... 165
  7. 7 Full-density patterned plush 167
  8. 8 Cut loop 167
  9. 9 Double-sided plush 167
  10. 10 Sliver or high-pile knitting 168
  11. 11 Wrap patterning 169

15 Loop transfer stitches 171

  1. 1 Uses of loop transfer 171
  2. 2 The four main types of transfer stitches 171

16 Welts, garment sequences and knitting to shape 179

  1. 1 The welt 179
  2. 2 Rib welts 181
  3. 3 Separation 183
  4. 4 Imparting shape during knitting 184
  5. 5 Integral garment knitting 193

17 The straight bar frame and full-fashioning 194

  1. 1 The development of the straight bar frame 194
  2. 2 Fully-fashioned articles 196
  3. 3 Stocking production 196
  4. 4 Underwear and knitwear 196
  5. 5 Knitting motions of the straight bar frame 196
  6. 6 Knitting action of the plain straight bar frame 197
  7. 7 Loop transfer 201
  8. 8 The fashioning action 202
  9. 9 Automatic control 203
  10. 10 The welt 203
  11. 11 The rib-to-plain machine 204
  12. 12 Patterned structures 205
  13. 13 The challenge of latch needle machinery 205

18 Flat knitting, basic principles and structures 207

  1. 1 History 207
  2. 2 The two types of flat machine 207
  3. 3 Flat machine gauges 208
  4. 4 Conversion from Cottons Patent to V-bed gauge 208
  5. 5 Knitting widths 208
  6. 6 Yarn counts 209
  7. 7 Simple hand-manipulated V-bed rib flat machines 209
  8. 8 Stitch cam settings 214
  9. 9 Spring-loaded cams 214
  10. 10 Two or more cam systems 215
  11. 11 Split cam-carriages 215
  12. 12 Direct and indirect yarn feed 216
  13. 13 Yarn carrier arrangement 216
  14. 14 Typical structures knitted on flat machines 218

19 Automatic power flat knitting 224

  1. 1 History 224
  2. 2 The MacQueen concept 224
  3. 3 Power flat machines 225
  4. 4 The versatility of V-bed power flat knitting 225
  5. 5 Electronic controls replace mechanical controls 225
  6. 6 The garment sequence programme 226
  7. 7 Mechanical jacquard selection 226
  8. 8 The Shima Seiki electronic selection system 226
  9. 9 The take-down system 230
  10. 10 The fixed-stroke carriage traverse 230
  11. 11 Meeting the requirements of a shaping machine 231
  12. 12 The multiple-gauge technique 234
  13. 13 The split stitch 236
  14. 14 Multi-carriage flat machines 236
  15. 15 Seamless glove knitting 237
  16. 16 The WholeGarment knitting technique 237
  17. 17 The Shima model FIRST 240
  18. 18 The Tsudakoma TFK machine 241

20 Circular garment-length machines 244

  1. 1 Circular versus flat machines 244
  2. 2 The double-cylinder garment-length machine 247
  3. 3 The RTR garment-length machine 250
  4. 4 Jumberca cylinder and dial and double-cylinder machines 253
  5. 5 Mecmor Variatex machines 253
  6. 6 The 'seamless' bodywear garment machine 255

21 The manufacture of hosiery on small-diameter circular machines 256

  1. 1 Types of hosiery 256
  2. 2 Classes of hosiery machines 257
  3. 3 Gauge 258
  4. 4 The early development of ladies' fine-gauge hosiery machines 258
  5. 5 The advent of nylon 259
  6. 6 Trends in fine-gauge hosiery since 1956 259
  7. 7 Ladder-resist structures 261
  8. 8 The development of the double-cylinder machine 262
  9. 9 Single-cylinder sock machines 262
  10. 10 Timing and control of mechanical changes on circular hosiery machines 262
  11. 11 Adjustment of loop length 264
  12. 12 The double-cylinder slider butt set-out 264
  13. 13 Production of heels and toes 265
  14. 14 Automatic separation 266
  15. 15 Seamed toe closing 267
  16. 16 Automatic toe closing on the knitting machine 267
  17. 17 Tights 270

22 Aspects of knitting science 274

  1. 1 Knitted loop-shape and loop-length control 274
  2. 2 Loop length 275
  3. 3 Warp let-off 277
  4. 4 Weft knitted fabric relaxation and shrinkage 279
  5. 5 Knitted fabric geometry 280
  6. 6 Tightness factor 281
  7. 7 Robbing back 282
  8. 8 Needle bounce and high-speed knitting 283
  9. 9 The Cadratex unit 284
  10. 10 Positive needle control 284

23 Basic warp knitting principles 286

  1. 1 Construction of warp knitted fabrics 286
  2. 2 The warp beams 287
  3. 3 The guide bar 287
  4. 4 The guides 287
  5. 5 Single needle bar structures 288
  6. 6 The pattern mechanism 289
  7. 7 The chain links 289
  8. 8 The electronic guide bar control system 291
  9. 9 The development of lapping diagrams and chain notations . . . 291
  10. 10 Single- or double-needle overlaps 291
  11. 11 The five basic overlap/underlap variations 293
  12. 12 The direction of lapping at successive courses 293

24 Classes of warp knitting machines 298

  1. 1 Characteristics of tricot and raschel machines 298
  2. 2 The tricot machine 298
  3. 3 The raschel machine 301
  4. 4 The compound-needle warp knitting machine 305
  5. 5 The crochet machine 306
  6. 6 The Waltex machine 311
  7. 7 Warping 311

25 Plain tricot structures knitted with two full set guide bars 313

  1. 1 Rules governing two guide bar structures 313
  2. 2 Two bar tricot 316
  3. 3 Locknit 317
  4. 4 Reverse locknit 317
  5. 5 Sharkskin 317
  6. 6 Queenscord 318
  7. 7 Double atlas 319
  8. 8 Satin 319
  9. 9 Velour and velvet 319
  10. 10 Overfed pile structures 320
  11. 11 Typical run-in ratios for nylon yarns 321

26 Surface interest, relief and open-work structures 322

  1. 1 Basic principles 322
  2. 2 Miss-lapping 323
  3. 3 Part-threaded guide bars 323

27 'Laying-in' and fall-plate 328

  1. 1 Laying-in and weft insertion 328
  2. 2 General rules governing laying-in in warp knitting 329
  3. 3 Mesh structures 330
  4. 4 Fall-plate patterning 330
  5. 5 Full-width weft insertion 333
  6. 6 Magazine weft insertion 334
  7. 7 Cut presser and miss-press structures 335
  8. 8 Spot or knop effects 337
  9. 9 Terry by the press-off method 338

28 Multi guide bar machines and fabrics 340

  1. 1 The development of raschel lace 340
  2. 2 The success of raschel lace 340
  3. 3 Pattern guide bars 341
  4. 4 Guide bar nesting 342
  5. 5 Multi bar tricot lace machines 342
  6. 6 Chain links and electronic control of shogging 343
  7. 7 The summary drive 344
  8. 8 Raschel mesh structures 344
  9. 9 Marquisette and voile 348
  10. 10 Elasticised fabrics 349
  11. 11 Jacquard raschels 351
  12. 12 The Mayer Jacquardtronic multi-bar lace raschels 352

29 Double needle bar warp knitting machines 357

  1. 1 Operating principles 357
  2. 2 Double needle bar basic lapping principles 358
  3. 3 Using two fully-threaded guide bars 358
  4. 4 The simplex machine 359
  5. 5 The double needle bar raschel 361

30 Technical textiles 370

  1. 1 Markets for technical textiles 370
  2. 2 The properties of warp knitted structures 370
  3. 3 End-uses for technical textiles 371
  4. 4 Geotextiles 372
  5. 5 Knitted wire 372
  6. 6 The advantages of warp knitted nets 372
  7. 7 Composites 374
  8. 8 Warp knitted multi-axial weft insertion fabrics 374
  9. 9 Stitch bonding or web knitting 375
  10. 10 Spacer fabrics 376
  11. 11 Circular warp knitting 377
  12. 12 V-bed technical fabrics 377

Appendix 380

Index 381

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