General rules governing layingin in warp knitting

  • An inlaid yarn will pass across one less wale than a knitted yarn that has the same extent of underlap. This is because the latter's overlap will add one further needle space traverse onto the underlap movement; thus a one-needle underlap will cause a yarn to inlay in the same wale and it will take a two-needle space under-lap to cross from one wale to another. If a guide bar is fully threaded, it will put one less thread between a wale than the number of needles it underlaps.
  • To eliminate the overlap movement (when using a two-link-per-course chain) it is necessary to put two links of the same height at the point where this should take place. Sometimes the pattern mechanism is arranged to run at one link per course to cater for the underlap and thus to save links.
  • The inlaid yarn will be tied in at every wale it crosses (if the overlapping guide bar is in front of it). If the knitting guide bar is making a pillar stitch, it will be tied in by the same number of threads as the number of needles it underlaps.
  • If the knitting bar underlaps in opposition to the inlay, it will add an extra thread for tying it into the structure. The inlay will thus be tied-in by one more thread than the number of needles the inlay underlaps.
  • When the laying-in and knitting bars lap in unison, there will be one less thread available for tying in the inlay so that the inlay will be tied-in by one less thread than the number of needles it underlaps.
  • If the knitting and laying-in bars underlap in the same direction and to the same extent as each other, the inlay will 'evade' the knitting bar underlaps and will slip through onto the technical back of the structure where (under tension) it will form a straight vertical configuration.
  • If a guide bar makes neither overlaps nor underlaps, it will 'miss-lap' and its thread will form a straight vertical configuration between two wales on the technical face, as the underlaps of the knitting bar will prevent it coming through onto the technical back.
  • In order to 'interweave' an inlaid yarn vertically with a knitted yarn, it is necessary to cause it to evade for three courses and to miss-lap for one course during the repeat. This is because, with a normal two-course repeat of the knitting guide bar, the underlaps will only cross that particular wale once. In a four-course repeat there will only be two courses where the underlaps cross the wales. At one of these there is miss-lapping and at the other there is evasion.

A vertically inlaid yarn that is positioned between two wales is termed a ''filler' thread.

  • If only two guide bars are employed, one knitting and one laying-in, the laying-in bar cannot produce a structure by only miss-lapping or only evading. In the first case, its yarn will fall out between the wales on the technical face and in the second case it will fall out from the back of the structure. Threads making these movements can, however, be trapped if other laying-in bars are carefully arranged as to their positions and lapping movements.
  • If two inlay threads cross over each other in a structure, the thread from the bar nearest to the front of the machine will show nearest to the technical back of the fabric.
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