Calculate The Fashioning Sequence For A Kintted Panel

Fig. 16.9 Integrally shaped rib garment pieces. The machine has an additional bed containing the transfer points [Shima Seiki].

2 Convert the width dimensions at the start of each section to total numbers of needles by multiplying the width measurement by wpi. Thus, 16 x 16 = 256; 18 x 16 = 288; 8 x 16 = 128 needles.

3 Calculate the total number of needles increased or decreased from one section to another by taking one total from the next.

4 Divide the totals obtained by 2 in order to obtain the increase or decrease of needles at one selvedge. Thus, 288 - 256 = an increase of 32 needles. 32/2 = 16

Integral Knitted Garments
Fig. 16.10 Modern integral garment technology assures precisely-formed loops which are crucial to the production of shaped garments [Shima Seiki].
Integral Garments

Single needle widening

16"

1

1 X 1 rib

  1. 16.11 Full-fashioned shaping calculation.
  2. 16.11 Full-fashioned shaping calculation.

single needle widenings; 288 -128 = 160; 160/2 = 80 needles, 80/2 gives 40 double-needle narrowings

5 There are 16 single-needle widenings occurring during the knitting of 140 courses; assuming the first fashioning occurs in the first course, there will be 15 fashionings in 139 courses; 139/15 = 9 with a remainder of 4. Thus 4 fashionings must occur at 10 course intervals and the remaining 11 at 9 course intervals.

6 Forty double-needle narrowings occur during 100 courses, again assuming the first fashioning occurs in the first course; 99/39 = 2 with a remainder of 21. Thus 21 fashionings occur at 3 course intervals and the remaining 18 fashionings occur at 2 course intervals.

16.4.3 Three-dimensional wale fashioning

Shaping by three-dimensional wale fashioning occurs within the width of needles, using an additional pair of independently-controlled fashioning boxes to shape stocking heels or bosom pouches. In the centre of the pouch, a number of needles knit plain fabric whilst on either side of them the extra sets of points widen outwards and later narrow again.

During widening, each needle that loses its loop and does not receive a new loop will commence a new wale in the next course, whereas, during narrowing, when a needle receives two loops, two wales will be caused to converge into one.

16.4.4 Needle selection shaping

In needle selection shaping, the selvedge needle(s) is introduced or withdrawn from the knitting width by means of needle selection. It is more convenient on automatic

V-bed flat machines to employ the jacquard selection to introduce empty needles for widening and to take needles out of action for narrowing

  • i) by transferring and re-transferring rib loops in conjunction with needle bed racking,
  • ii) by pressing-off loops, or
  • iii) by causing needles to hold their loops for large numbers of traverses (Fig. 16.12) [1].

It is even possible to introduce or remove a selvedge needle from the knitting action during tubular plain knitting on a V-bed flat machine, thus achieving a certain amount of shape in the tube.

The full shaping potential of the V-bed flat machine can only be exploited if the conventional roller take-down system is replaced by an arrangement capable of accommodating itself to varying rates of production and fabric widths and even to separated garments or garment pieces.

16.4.5 Reciprocated knitting of pouches

Three-dimensional shaping of pouches can be achieved on small-diameter hosiery machines by using held loop shaping in a similar manner to flat knitting, so that the number of courses knitted by adjacent needles is varied in order to knit a pouch for a heel and, if necessary, for a toe.

During pouch-knitting, the rotating movement of the cylinder changes to an oscillatory movement. In the first half of the pouch-knitting sequence, only half the needles continue knitting, and during the reciprocating knitting, a needle at each edge is lowered out of action (narrowing) to join (in the case of heel-pouch knitting) the instep needles, which are already holding their fabric loops. When only one-third of the needles remain in action, widening commences so that needles are successively brought back into action at the edge of the pouch. When all the pouchhalf of the needles have recommenced knitting, the cylinder returns to rotary knitting and circular courses are knitted, with all needles in action.

A small-diameter garment machine was developed to produce shaping for the bust or shoulder section of integrally-knitted garments using the reciprocated pouch principle but has not been utilised to any extent [2].

As oscillatory knitting is a much slower and more complicated process than circular knitting, the toe is produced as an open tube on many stocking and tights machines. It is later seamed to shape. The heel may also be knitted as a part of the leg tube, being boarded out and heat-set shaped during finishing.

One method of producing a stocking heel pouch in completely circular knitting is to knit circular courses at the first feeder and to select needles for heel section knitting at the second feeder in conjunction with striping, cutting and trapping of yarn. With this method, a part circular course is sandwiched between each full circular course for the heel section.

16.4.6 Shaping by changing the knitted stitch structure

Stitch shaping is the imparting of shape into selvedged or tubular weft knitted structures by changing the nature of the stitch structure without altering the total number of needles that are in action. It may be used for garment-shaping sequences in

Flat Knitting Shaping
Fig. 16.12 Garment shaping by holding loops on a V-bed flat machine thus knitting wales with different numbers of courses. (A) is the commencing course and (B) the pressed-off course. A presser foot device was employed [Knitting International].

knitwear, jerseywear and underwear produced on latch needle machines. It is a simpler and faster method than fashioning and does not require specially-shaped elements, but it can only be used for a few definite step-changes of shape rather than the graduated shaping technique of fashioning.

In the sleeve and body panels of knitwear, the tuck stitches will cause half and full cardigan to throw out wider than the 1 x 1 rib border (Fig. 16.13). In ladies' stitch-shaped vests, patterned rib eyelet will produce a similar effect in the bust and skirt sections, compared with the 2 x 2 rib waist and border (Fig. 16.14).

In plain tubular fabric articles such as some socks and gloves, elastic may be inlaid on an alternate tuck/miss basis on the same needle sequence, so that the fabric concertinas into a narrower elastic 'mock rib' effect for the tops.

16.4.7 Shaping by altering the stitch length

Changes of stitch length by alteration of stitch cam positions are carried out at particular points in a garment-length knitting sequence. Even mechanical V-bed power flat machines have at least five pre-set positions that can be automatically obtained during traversing of the cam carriage. On both circular and flat machines it is also possible to change from synchronised to delayed timing in 1 x 1 rib knitting and thus produce tighter and more 'elastic' rib courses suitable for rib borders. In ladies'

Half Cardigan Rib

Fig. 16.13 Stitch shaping (1 = 2 x 2 rib; 2 = 1 x 1 rib; 3 = half-cardigan; 4 = tubular courses;

Fig. 16.13 Stitch shaping (1 = 2 x 2 rib; 2 = 1 x 1 rib; 3 = half-cardigan; 4 = tubular courses;

Fig. 16.14 Stitch-shaped thermal underwear in 1 x 1 rib with rib loop transfer and cylinder needle pick-up design knitted in 1/28's cotton spun 50/50 Viloft/polyester on a 10-gauge RTR (13-, 15-, and 17-inch diameters) by Twinlock [Courtaulds, Henrietta House, London].

hosiery, a graduated stiffening or tightening of the stitch length occurs to obtain a certain amount of shape between the thigh and the ankle.

The introduction of a certain percentage of elastane yarn into the construction of a weft or warp knitted fabric improves extension and recovery properties and therefore its form-fitting properties. The percentage elongation of the elastane yarn may be controlled during fabric finishing by heat-setting [3].

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  • WALTER
    What is integral garment course shaping technique?
    1 year ago

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