The three methods of forming yarn into needle loops

There are three methods of forming the newly-fed yarn into the shape of a needle loop:

1 (Fig. 4.1) - by sinking the yarn into the space between adjacent needles using loop forming sinkers or other elements which approach from the beard side. The action of a straight bar frame is illustrated. (Other obsolete circular bearded needle machines such as the sinkerwheel and loopwheel frame employ the same technique.) The distance SL, which the catch of the sinker moves past the beard side of the needle, is approximately half the stitch length,

2 (Fig. 4.2) - by causing latch needles to draw their own needle loops down through the old loops as they descend, one at a time, down the stitch cam. This method is employed on all latch needle weft knitting machines. The distance SL that the head of the latch needle descends below the knock-over surface (in this case, the belly of the knock-over sinker) is approximately half the stitch length, and

3 (Fig. 4.3) - by causing a warp yarn guide to wrap the yarn loop around the needle.

The lapping movement of the guide is produced from the combination of two separate guide bar motions:

  • A swinging motion which occurs between the needles from the front of the machine to the hook side and return.
  • A lateral shogging (or racking) motion parallel to the needle bar on the hook side and also on the front of the machine.

The swinging motion is fixed, but the direction and extent of the shogging motion may or may not be varied from a pattern mechanism. This method is employed on all warp knitting machines and for wrap patterning on weft knitting machines (when a fixed wrapping movement is used). The length of yarn per stitch unit is generally determined by the rate of warp yarn feed.

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