Upright loop structures

Structures with upright loops in straight wales are produced only if the tension on the yarn on either side of the needle loop head is balanced. This condition often exists in weft knitted structures because balanced sinker loops enter from either side of the needle head, but it may be disturbed by racking, by knitting twist lively yarn or by traversing pressing-down elements.

Warp knitted structures, however, seldom have perfectly upright overlaps because the underlaps, even if they enter from either side of the overlap head, rarely balance each other. When closed laps are produced, both underlaps will be on one side of the previous overlap head, causing it to incline towards that direction. Even a progressive open lap will not produce a balanced loop structure, because the underlap entering the overlap head from below will not balance the effect of the underlap on the opposite side as it leaves for the course above.

Single guide bar fabrics are thus very unstable structures. This is one of the reasons why most warp knitted structures are produced from two or more sets of warp threads. Often the guide bars supply yarn to each needle but lap in opposite directions, so that the tensions of their underlaps tend to balance each other.

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