Velour and velvet structures are based on producing long underlaps on the front guide bar that are formed into a pile surface on the technical back during finishing.
Brushed velour normally has the same lapping movement as satin, with 40-60 denier nylon or polyester yarn in the back guide bar for strength and possibly 55-100 denier viscose or acetate threaded in the front guide bar, which is broken into a pile by brushing during finishing. Velvet is produced with a longer underlap on the front guide bar, such as a 6 x 1 or even an 8 x 1 lap.
These underlaps are cropped or sheared during finishing, producing a more regular and prominent pile surface and a width shrinkage of approximately 35 per cent, compared with 50 per cent or more for velours. An open tricot lap may be made on the back guide bar to bury the pile yarn on the face and thus produce a more stable structure. On a 28-gauge tricot machine, 40 denier nylon might be used for the face yarn and 100 denier rayon for the pile, producing a structure with a finished weight of approximately 150g/m2.
In raised loop velours (Fig. 25.8), both guide bars lap in unison, producing an unstable construction with inclined loops similar to those of a single guide bar structure. Stability is achieved later during finishing when double-action pile and counter-pile rollers contact the individual filaments, raising them into a mass of fine loops and at the same time consolidating the structure. On 28-gauge tricot machines, either nylon or polyester yarn in 40 denier is used for apparel and 90 denier for furnishings.
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